NCGS

 

Research Reports

The National Coalition of Girls' Schools (NCGS) has a deep and rich history embedded in research on girls’ schools. NCGS continues to provide its member schools research to support them in situating the value of girls’ schools upon a theoretical and pedagogical base, which helps families and communities better appreciate the positive outcomes of a girls’ school education. The Coalition conducts NCGS-directed research projects with academic partners, collaborates with researchers working on issues of importance to girls’ education and girls’ schools, and tracks prevailing research to keep member schools up-to-date with the latest findings.

The following is not an exhaustive list, but a wide variety of reports grouped by research topic to aid our member schools in their advocacy efforts.

  • Athletics
    • Changing the Game for Girls: In Action
      Institution: Women in Sport
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      In 2012, Women in Sport published Changing the Game for Girls, a study aimed at better understanding the low levels of physical activity among young girls in the UK and uncovering new ideas to help more girls get, and stay, active. Following this study, Women in Sport designed a two-year pilot program to be implemented in 25 schools across England. Beginning in 2013 and concluding in 2016, this pilot sought to improve girls’ engagement in PE and school sport. This report documents the findings of this program.
    • Protecting the Female Athlete: Research on Concussions, ACL Injuries and Nutrition
      Author(s): Tori S. Cordiano, Lisa Damour
      Institution: Laurel Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Research consistently indicates that girls experience more concussions than boys in similar sports, including soccer and basketball, though the rates at which they differ vary. Researchers define concussion as a change in brain functioning following a force to the head. Diagnosis and treatment of concussion is complicated by the fact that symptoms are often subtle and difficult to detect, can be non-specific to concussion and might not present immediately following the injury. Though young children do not show significant sex differences in their rates of concussion, severity of symptoms or recovery time, sex differences in these areas begin to emerge around puberty. In addition to longer general recovery time from concussion, female athletes also show poorer visual memory and greater declines in simple and complex reaction times following concussion and more subjective and objective concussion effects. This research explores factors that may contribute to these differential effects of concussion.
    • Go Where Women Are: Insight on Engaging Women and Girls in Sport and Exercise
      Institution: Sport England
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      'Go Where Women Are' is about engaging women in sport and exercise on their terms and in their space whether physically or emotionally. This review explores our current understanding of women, their relevant motivations, barriers and triggers to getting more active, and what this means for sports and exercise activities and initiatives.
    • Title IX and Sports: Proven Benefits, Unfounded Objections
      Institution: The National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      For many, Title IX is synonymous with expanded opportunities in athletics. Before Title IX, women and girls were virtually excluded from most athletic opportunities in schools. Since the legislation passed, girls and women have been able to participate in athletics at much higher rates. Opportunities for girls to participate in high school athletics in particular have increased exponentially. The benefits of increased participation affect not just female athletes but society as a whole. Research has found that girls who play sports are less likely to get pregnant or take drugs than those who don't play sports; they're also more likely to graduate and go on to college. Furthermore, sports participation reduces the risk of developing illnesses such as obesity, heart disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer, all of which have huge associated social and financial costs.
  • Behavior & Risk-taking
    • The Effect of Single-Sex Education on Academic Outcomes and Crime: Fresh Evidence from Low-Performing Schools in Trinidad and Tobago
      Author(s): C. Kirabo Jackson
      Institution: Northwestern University
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      In 2010, the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago converted 20 low-performing pilot secondary schools from co-ed to single-sex. This report exploits these conversions to identify the causal effect of single-sex schooling holding other school inputs (such as teacher quality and leadership quality) constant. After also accounting for student selection, both boys and girls in single-sex cohorts at pilot schools score 0.14σ higher in the academic subjects on national exams. There is no robust effect on non-academic subjects. Additionally, treated students are more likely to earn the secondary-school leaving credential, and the all-boys cohorts have fewer arrests. Survey evidence reveals that these single-sex effects reflect both direct gender peer effects due to interactions between classmates, and also indirect effects generated through changes in teacher behavior. Importantly, these benefits are achieved at zero financial cost.
    • Pretend Play, Divergent Thinking, and Math Achievement in Girls: A Longitudinal Study
      Author(s): Claire E. Wallace, Sandra W. Russ
      Institution: American Psychological Association
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The present study examined longitudinal relationships among early pretend play, divergent thinking, and academic achievement in school-age girls. Theoretically, processes in pretend play should relate to divergent thinking and academic achievement. As hypothesized, early pretend play predicted later divergent thinking. Children whose pretend play was more imaginative and organized generated more alternate uses for common objects. In addition, both pretend play and divergent thinking predicted girls’ mathematics achievement longitudinally. All results remained significant when verbal intelligence was controlled. The present study provides important longitudinal evidence for the predictive power of pretend play in children’s development and adaptive functioning, particularly as it relates to divergent thinking and math achievement in girls.
    • Relationships: Girls and Their Peers
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Girls become increasingly invested in their peer relationships as they age. The amount of time that children between the ages of 9 and 15 spend with their families decreases by half and girls, more than boys, replace time spent with family with time spent with friends. Research indicates that girls place more emphasis on interpersonal relationships than boys which may provide girls with beneficial social support while also putting them at heightened risk for distress when they are having difficulty with their peers.
    • Creativity, Problem Solving, and Gender
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      Creativity is the process of generating solutions and products that are both original and useful. Divergent thinking—a thought process that is an essential component of creativity —involves the ability to generate a variety of solutions to a problem. In early adolescence, girls appear more negatively affected when they know their creative work will be evaluated. Specifically, girls appear to lose motivation and become less creative when they expect to be judged by an “expert.” It is not altogether clear why girls are more affected than boys by outside evaluation of their creative work, but it may be that girls at this age are more attuned to interpersonal communication and the expectations of others. Some research suggests that girls in single-sex schools outperform girls in co-educational schools on creative tasks, perhaps because girls in single-sex schools enjoy more opportunities and support for creative thinking.
    • Gender Differences in Risk Behavior: Does Nurture Matter?
      Author(s): Alison Booth and Patrick Nolan
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      Using a controlled experiment, we investigate if individuals’ risk preferences are affected by (i) the gender composition of the group to which they are randomly assigned, and (ii) the gender mix of the school they attend. Our subjects, from eight publicly funded single-sex and coeducational schools, were asked to choose between a real-stakes lottery and a sure bet. We found that girls in an all-girls group or attending a single-sex school were more likely than their coed counterparts to choose a real-stakes gamble. This suggests that observed gender differences in behavior under uncertainty found in previous studies might reflect social learning rather than inherent gender traits.
    • Pretend Play, Creativity, and Emotion Regulation in Children
      Author(s): Jessica Hoffmann, Sandra Russ
      Institution: American Psychological Association
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      The aim of this study was to examine relationships among pretend play, creativity, emotion regulation, and executive functioning in children. Pretend play processes were assessed using the Affect in Play Scale (APS), which measures children’s cognitive and affective processes, such as organization of a plot or use of emotions. Sixty-one female participants, in kindergarten through fourth grade, were assessed using the APS to measure pretend play ability, a divergent thinking task (the Alternate Uses Test), a storytelling task to assess creativity, a measure of executive functioning (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Short Form; WCST-64), and parent report on the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). Using correlational analyses, pretend play significantly related to creativity as measured by divergent thinking and storytelling, and related to emotion regulation. Affect expression in play was significantly related to affect expression in storytelling suggesting cross-situational stability. Divergent thinking ability was significantly related to creativity in storytelling. In general the magnitudes of the correlations were of medium effect size. No significant relationships were found with executive functioning. The results of this study support theories that suggest play, creativity, and emotion regulation are linked.
    • Teaching Girls to Adopt a Growth Mindset
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Fixed and growth mindset—terms developed by Carol Dweck, Ph.D.—describe two categories of belief about ability. Students with a fixed mindset believe that their mental abilities are static and that their intelligence and abilities cannot be altered with effort. In contrast, students with a growth mindset believe that their intelligence and abilities can be expanded with effort. Research evidence demonstrates that students with a growth mindset academically outperform their fixed mindset peers. Some research evidence indicates that girls are more likely than boys to have a fixed mindset, especially in mathematics. Despite actually performing as well as boys in math courses, girls doubt their ability to develop their math skills when faced with difficult material; this fixed mindset in female mathematics students appears to contribute to the substantial gender gap in mathematics engagement that emerges during and after middle school.
    • Children’s Cognitive Development and Learning
      Author(s): Peter Bryant, Usha Goswami
      Institution: Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge
      Year Of Study: 2007
      VIEW REPORT
      There has been an explosion of research on how children of primary age develop, think and learn. This study focuses on key areas of consensus in the wider field of cognitive developmental neuroscience while also highlighting current controversies (for example in research in mathematics learning). This study concentrates on experiments investigating how children develop cognitively, particularly in terms of learning, thinking, and reasoning, and how social/emotional development sets the framework for the child’s learning in the ‘learning environments’ created by their families, peers, schools and wider society.
    • Children’s Social Development, Peer Interaction, and Classroom Learning
      Author(s): Christine Howe, Neil Mercer
      Institution: Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge
      Year Of Study: 2007
      VIEW REPORT
      This survey adopts a socio-cultural perspective by focusing on the social processes that shape children’s growth. Discussing the educational significance of classroom interaction amongst children, this study argues that interaction amongst children does not take place in a vacuum, but is heavily influenced by the social histories that children bring to bear. More than just influencing classroom interaction, these histories are themselves constituted, in part at least, by social interaction, both within and outside the classroom. Thus, any attempt to promote interaction that is conducive to learning will of necessity have to acknowledge a contextual dimension. This survey concludes by discussing the implications for classroom intervention.
  • Diversity & Inclusion
    • Letting Go of the Binary: Comparing Categorical and Continuous Measures of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
      Author(s): Jennifer S. Bryan, Joseph D. Mangine
      Institution: Team Finch Consultants
      Year Of Study: 2017
      VIEW REPORT
      This Executive Summary outlines the (1) methods, (2) results, (3) conclusions and (4) implications of two studies of sex, gender, and sexuality undertaken by Team Finch Consultants (TFC). Building on a model originally called the Diagram of Sex and Gender, TFC developed a more inclusive schema called the New Diagram of Sex, Gender and Sexuality (NDSGS, Bryan and Barr, 2015; see final page). TFC adapted the NDSGS to use as a measure and administered it to two different demographic groups, analyzed the data, and presented the results. The paper Letting Go of the Binary: Comparing Categorical and Continuous Measures of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality (Bryan, J, Barr, S, Overtree, C, & Mangine, J., 2016) is being submitted for publication in its entirety and is available from the first author.
    • Separation and Stigma: Transgender Youth & School Facilities
      Institution: Movement Advancement Project, GLSEN
      Year Of Study: 2017
      VIEW REPORT
      Every student deserves a fair chance to succeed in school and to be protected from discrimination and bullying. Yet this is not the experience of far too many of the estimated 150,000 transgender students aged 13-17 in the United States. As adults argue about whether to allow transgender students to use restrooms that match the gender they live every day, it is transgender students who pay a heavy personal price. On the surface, the argument is about bathrooms, but at a deeper level, it is about the recognition of transgender students as worthy of being included in our public education system. To make sense of the legal arguments and the broader national context for transgender students and facilities access at school, this report outlines how excluding transgender students from the school facilities that match their gender is not only unnecessary but profoundly harmful. The report also examines the existing federal, state, and local landscape for transgender students and their ability to access facilities at school across the country.
    • ‘Like Walking Through a Hailstorm’: Discrimination against LGBT Youth in US Schools
      Institution: Human Rights Watch
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Based on interviews with over 500 students, teachers, administrators, parents, service providers, and advocates in Alabama, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, and Utah, this report focuses on four main issues that LGBT people continue to experience in school environments in the United States. Areas of concern include bullying and harassment, exclusion from school curricula and resources, restrictions on LGBT student groups, and other forms of discrimination and bigotry against students and staff based on sexual orientation and gender identity. While not exhaustive, these broad issues offer a starting point for policymakers and administrators to ensure that LGBT people’s rights are respected and protected in schools.
    • Mental Health and Self-Worth in Socially Transitioned Transgender Youth
      Author(s): Lily Durwood, Katie A. McLaughlin, Kristina R. Olson
      Institution: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the “opposite” gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children.
    • Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities
      Author(s): Kristina R. Olson, Lily Durwood, Madeleine DeMeules, Katie A. McLaughlin
      Institution: American Academy of Pediatrics
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Transgender children who have socially transitioned, that is, who identify as the gender “opposite” their natal sex and are supported to live openly as that gender, are increasingly visible in society, yet we know nothing about their mental health. Previous work with children with gender identity disorder (GID; now termed gender dysphoria) has found remarkably high rates of anxiety and depression in these children. Here we examine, for the first time, mental health in a sample of socially transitioned transgender children. A community-based national sample of transgender, prepubescent children (n = 73, aged 3–12 years), along with control groups of non-transgender children in the same age range (n = 73 age- and gender-matched community controls; n = 49 sibling of transgender participants), were recruited as part of the TransYouth Project. Parents completed anxiety and depression measures. Transgender children showed no elevations in depression and slightly elevated anxiety relative to population averages. They did not differ from the control groups on depression symptoms and had only marginally higher anxiety symptoms.
    • Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced, and Underprotected
      Author(s): Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, Priscilla Ocen, Jyoti Nanda
      Institution: African American Policy Forum, Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Against the backdrop of the surveillance, punishment, and criminalization of youth of color in the United States, Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced, and Underprotected seeks to increase awareness of the gendered consequences of disciplinary and push-out policies for girls of color, and, in particular, Black girls. The report developed out of a critical dialogue about the various ways that women and girls of color are channeled onto pathways that lead to underachievement and criminalization. This modest but long-overdue effort to cast light onto the lives of marginalized girls should be replicated and expanded across the nation. We are especially hopeful that ongoing efforts to resolve the crisis facing boys of color will open up opportunities to examine the challenges facing their female counterparts.
    • Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Limited Representation in School Support Personnel Journals
      Author(s): Emily C. Graybill, Sherrie L. Proctor
      Institution: Journal of School Psychology
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This study analyzed eight school support personnel journals across the disciplines of school counseling, school nursing, school psychology, and school social work for LGBT content published between 2000 and 2014 to gain a better understanding of the visibility of LGBT issues in the research. Results suggested that there has been a lack of presence of LGBT issues in journals across disciplines. These results also suggest a need for an intentional focus on issues relevant to LGBT youth in school support personnel journals.

    • School Experiences of Transgender and Gender Diverse Students in Australia
      Author(s): Tiffany Jones, Elizabeth Smith, Roz Ward, Jennifer Dixon, Lynne Hillier, Anne Mitchell
      Institution: Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This paper explores the school experiences of Australian transgender and gender diverse students, with particular consideration of recognition of their gender identity in documentation, experiences of puberty and sexuality education, treatment by staff and students, and other forms of provision. It reports on the findings of a 2013 study which combined a survey of 189 transgender and gender diverse Australian students aged 14–25 years, with 16 online interviews with members of this group. Findings include both quantitative and qualitative data, detailing a trend towards more disruptive, fluid and inconsistent identifications by members of this student group, and a diversification of their needs at school. Student advocacy on topics including sexuality and puberty education was shown to be common and also useful in improving individual well-being and social outcomes. 

    • Urban Elementary Single-Sex Math Classrooms: Mitigating Stereotype Threat for African American Girls
      Author(s): Anica G. Bowe, Christopher D. Desjardins, Lesa M. Covington Clarkson, Frances Lawrenz
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to holistically examine single-sex and coeducational urban elementary mathematics classes through situated cognitive theory. Participants came from two urban low-income Midwestern elementary schools with a high representation of minority students (n=77 sixth graders, n=4 teachers, n=2 principals). Findings demonstrate that African American girls made more math achievement gains in single-sex classrooms; single-sex classrooms might mitigate math academic stereotypes for students and teachers; and that important contextual factors play a role in these outcomes. Testing these factors is a step toward delineating a theory of change for single-sex education in urban public schools.
    • When and Where I Enter: A Study of the Experiences of African-American Girls in All-Girls' Independent Schools
      Author(s): Erica Stovall White
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The When and Where I Enter study aimed to understand better the experience of African-American girls in all girls' independent schools. To gain a holistic understanding of this group, the study used both quantitative (objective measurement) and qualitative (interview) methods to explore several facets of girls' experiences, including: social connectedness, life satisfaction, states of positive/negative feeling, racial identity, school connectedness, school experiences, and the role of socioeconomic status.
    • Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering
      Institution: National Science Foundation
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The biennial report Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering is mandated by the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (Public Law 96-516). The digest highlights key statistics drawn from a wide variety of data sources. Data and figures in this digest are organized into topical areas--enrollment, field of degree, occupation, employment status, and academic employment.
    • From Gender Identity Disorder to Gender Identity Creativity: True Gender Self Child Therapy
      Author(s): Diane Ehrensaft
      Institution: Journal of Homosexuality
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      True gender self child therapy is based on the premise of gender as a web that weaves together nature, nurture, and culture and allows for a myriad of healthy gender outcomes. This article presents concepts of true gender self, false gender self, and gender creativity as they operationalize in clinical work with children who need therapeutic supports to establish an authentic gender self while developing strategies for negotiating an environment resistant to that self. Categories of gender nonconforming children are outlined and excerpts of a treatment of a young transgender child are presented to illustrate true gender self child therapy.
    • Inequities in Educational and Psychological Outcomes Between LGBTQ and Straight Students in Middle and High School
      Author(s): Joseph P. Robinson, Dorothy L. Espelage
      Institution: Educational Researcher
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      This study finds that, compared with straight-identified youth, youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) are at greater risk of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, victimization by peers, and elevated levels of unexcused absences from school. Results disaggregated by LGBTQ subgroups reveal heterogeneity within the broad LGBTQ group, with bisexual youth appearing to be particularly at risk. Also, although the risk gaps in school belongingness and unexcused absences are significant in high school, we find that these gaps are significantly greater in middle school, suggesting heightened early risk for LGBTQ-identified students. By raising awareness of educational inequities related to LGBTQ identification, this study lays the descriptive groundwork for interventions aimed at improving psychological and educational outcomes for these students.
    • Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey
      Author(s): Jaime M. Grant, Lisa A. Mottet, Justin Tanis, Jack Harrison, Jody L. Herman, Mara Keisling
      Institution: National Center for Transgender Equality, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Transgender and gender non-conforming people face injustice at every turn: in childhood homes, in school systems that promise to shelter and educate, in harsh and exclusionary workplaces, at the grocery store, the hotel front desk, in doctors’ offices and emergency rooms, before judges and at the hands of landlords, police officers, health care workers and other service providers. The National Transgender Discrimination Survey is the most extensive survey of transgender discrimination ever undertaken. Over 6,450 responses are included in the survey, which explored discrimination in all aspects of life.  

    • The Resilience Factor: A Key to Leadership in African American and Hispanic Girls
      Author(s): Paula Fleshman, Judy Schoenberg
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      The idea for this working paper was generated from questions raised from Change It Up! What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership (2008), a nationwide study conducted by the Girl Scout Research Institute (GSRI) which explored how youth ages 8 to 17 define, experience, and aspire to leadership. One of the key findings of this study revealed that girls are not a monolithic group and that there are differences among girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. What are some of these differences and how can they be understood within diverse cultural contexts? This paper explores these and other key questions using the concept of resilience as a framework based on recent literature focused on African American and Hispanic girls.
    • Working with Transgender Children and Their Classmates in Pre-Adolescence: Just Be Supportive
      Author(s): Julie C. Luecke
      Institution: Journal of LGBT Youth
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      This study documents a school district’s coordinated response to an elementary student’s social transition from a gender variant boy to a female gender expression. Data was gathered through an analysis of journal entries, lesson plans, and interviews with the child, guardian, and district personnel. Stakeholders reported a favorable outlook on the transition, particularly in the areas of classroom and school interventions, peer involvement, and maintaining safety for all. The greatest concerns related to communication and language. This article provides a record of the model followed in order that other schools and districts may use it as a starting point.
    • Transgender Children – More than a Theoretical Challenge
      Author(s): Natacha Kennedy, Mark Hellen
      Institution: Graduate Journal of Social Science
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      This research suggests that the majority of transgender people become aware of their gender identities at a very early age. As such many transgender children go through most, if not all, of their time in compulsory education knowing their gender identity is different from that expected of them. This paper examines the evidence and goes on to examine the implications of this from the point of view of children's abilities to rationalize and understand their own situations and make sense of the conflicting pressures on them to conform to gender normative behavior and to expectations of gender which they are ultimately unable to do. As such, they may spend many years of their lives unnecessarily having to deal with feelings of guilt and shame. The consequences of this are likely to be substantial underachievement in all areas of their lives.

    • Harsh Realities – The Experiences of Transgender Youth in Our Nation’s Schools
      Author(s): Emily A. Greytak, Joseph G. Kosciw, Elizabeth M. Diaz
      Institution: Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network
      Year Of Study: 2009
      VIEW REPORT
      Societal norms of gender expression—masculinity or femininity—pervade American culture, on television, in advertising, at sporting events and in school hallways nationwide. Name-calling and bullying based on gender expression are among the first forms of harassment that young people learn and experience. And as transgender and gender nonconforming students enter middle and high school, they can face far harsher realities than name-calling, including harassment and physical violence. This study illuminates the unique challenges faced by transgender students, who often challenge societal norms of gender and can face additional unique obstacles in school.
    • Does Stereotype Threat Affect Test Performance of Minorities and Women? A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Evidence
      Author(s): Hannah-Hanh D. Nguyen, Ann Marie Ryan
      Year Of Study: 2008
      VIEW REPORT
      A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
  • Experiential Learning/Problem-Based Learning
    • A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students
      Author(s): Christine I. Celio, Joseph Durlak, Allison Dymnicki
      Institution: Journal of Experiential Education
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Service-learning (SL) has become a popular teaching method everywhere from elementary schools to colleges. Despite the increased presence of SL in the education world, it is still unclear what student outcomes are associated with SL programs and what factors are related to more effective programs. A meta-analysis of 62 studies involving 11,837 students indicated that, compared to controls, students participating in SL programs demonstrated significant gains in five outcome areas: attitudes toward self, attitudes toward school and learning, civic engagement, social skills, and academic performance. Furthermore, as predicted, there was empirical support for the position that following certain recommended practices—such as linking to curriculum, voice, community involvement, and reflection—was associated with better outcomes. The data included in this report should be gratifying for educators who incorporate SL into their courses and should encourage more SL research to understand how students benefit and what conditions foster their growth and development.
    • Young Children Develop Foundational Skills Through Child-Initiated Experiences in a Nature Explore Classroom: A Single Case Study in La Cañada, California
      Author(s): Ellen M. Veselack, Lisa Cain-Chang, Dana L. Miller
      Institution: Child Educational Center, Dimensions Educational Research Foundation
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      The grand tour research question that guided this report was, “How does young children's engagement in child-initiated activities in the Nature Explore Classroom facilitate skill development?" The results of this research will be influential in the area of early child care and the education of young children. The evidence presented in this paper may be used to inform and amend or alter early childhood learning standards or legislation regarding young children. It may also be used to advocate for funding to create outdoor classrooms for children. Understanding the importance of child-initiated experiences in this NEC, in relation to specific skill development, will help those who have influence over curriculum, scheduling and facilities make more informed decisions regarding young children’s educational environments. This research substantiates the importance of providing intentionally designed outdoor spaces, intentionally selected materials, and time for children to explore space and materials. 
    • A Marvelous Opportunity for Children to Learn: A Participatory Evaluation of Forest School in England and Wales
      Author(s): Liz O’Brien, Richard Murray
      Institution: Forestry Commission England, Forestry Research
      Year Of Study: 2006
      VIEW REPORT
      Forest School is an inspirational process that offers children, young people and adults regular opportunities to achieve and develop confidence through hands-on learning in a woodland environment. The New Economics Foundation (NEF) and Forest Research began working in partnership to evaluate Forest School in 2002. This work involved two phases. Phase 1 was undertaken in Wales and developed a methodology for capturing the link between Forest School activities and their impact on individual children. Phase 2 built on this work and tracked a small number of children in England over an eight-month period. This publication describes both phases of the evaluation and presents the results of the evaluation.
    • Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research
      Author(s): Michael Prince
      Institution: Journal of Engineering Education
      Year Of Study: 2004
      VIEW REPORT
      This study examines the evidence for the effectiveness of active learning. It defines the common forms of active learning most relevant for engineering faculty and critically examines the core element of each method. It is found that there is broad but uneven support for the core elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning.
    • Problem-Based Learning: What and How Do Students Learn?
      Author(s): Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver
      Institution: Educational Psychology Review
      Year Of Study: 2004
      VIEW REPORT
      Problem-based approaches to learning have a long history of advocating experience-based education. Psychological research and theory suggests that by having students learn through the experience of solving problems, they can learn both content and thinking strategies. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method in which students learn through facilitated problem-solving. This article discusses the nature of learning in PBL and examines the empirical evidence supporting it. The evidence suggests that PBL is an instructional approach that offers the potential to help students develop flexible understanding and lifelong learning skills.
  • Gender Gap/Stereotypes
    • Gender Stereotypes About Intellectual Ability Emerge Early and Influence Children’s Interests
      Author(s): Lin Bian, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Andrei Cimpian
      Year Of Study: 2017
      VIEW REPORT
      Common stereotypes associate high-level intellectual ability (brilliance, genius, etc.) with men more than women. These stereotypes discourage women’s pursuit of many prestigious careers; that is, women are underrepresented in fields whose members cherish brilliance (such as physics and philosophy). Here we show that these stereotypes are endorsed by, and influence the interests of, children as young as 6. Specifically, 6-year-old girls are less likely than boys to believe that members of their gender are “really, really smart.” Also at age 6, girls begin to avoid activities said to be for children who are “really, really smart.” These findings suggest that gendered notions of brilliance are acquired early and have an immediate effect on children’s interests.
    • Early Childhood Behavior Problems and the Gender Gap in Educational Attainment in the United States
      Author(s): Jayanti Owens
      Institution: American Sociological Association
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Why do men in the United States today complete less schooling than women? One reason may be gender differences in early self-regulation and prosocial behaviors. Scholars have found that boys’ early behavioral disadvantage predicts their lower average academic achievement during elementary school. In this study, I examine longer-term effects: Do these early behavioral differences predict boys’ lower rates of high school graduation, college enrollment and graduation, and fewer years of schooling completed in adulthood? If so, through what pathways are they linked? I leverage a nationally representative sample of children born in the 1980s to women in their early to mid-20s and followed into adulthood. I use decomposition and path analytic tools to show that boys’ higher average levels of behavior problems at age 4 to 5 years help explain the current gender gap in schooling by age 26 to 29, controlling for other observed early childhood factors. In addition, I find that early behavior problems predict outcomes more for boys than for girls. Early behavior problems matter for adult educational attainment because they tend to predict later behavior problems and lower achievement.
    • Stereotypes About Gender and Science: Women ≠ Scientists
      Author(s): Linda L. Carli, Laila Alawa, YoonAh Lee, Bei Zhao, Elaine Kim
      Institution: Psychology of Women Quarterly
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      We conducted two studies whose primary goal was to assess the similarity between stereotypes about women and men and stereotypes about successful scientists. In addition, we examined the degree to which scientists, men, and women are seen as agentic or communal. The results are consistent with role-congruity and lack-of-fit theories that report incompatibility of female gender stereotypes with stereotypes about high-status occupational roles. The results demonstrate that women are perceived to lack the qualities needed to be successful scientists, which may contribute to discrimination and prejudice against female scientists.

    • Do Movie Super-Heroines Empower Women?
      Author(s): Hillary Pennell, Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The super-heroines who feature in the X-Men series and other comic-book films challenge traditional gender stereotypes in the sense that they are powerful, strong and smart. You'd think watching them in action might have an empowering influence on female viewers. But there's a catch- heroine characters like Mystique, Storm and PsyLocke are also hypersexualized. Their clothing is tight and revealing, they are typically buxom and ultra thin-waisted, and they often use their sex appeal for influence. On balance, then, what is the effect of these fictional characters? With super-hero films dominating at the box office, it's a timely question.
    • Doing Gender in Classroom Discourse
      Author(s): Christopher Parsons
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This study aims to investigate students’ in-school use of language often associated with confidence and competence—and to consider the role gender performance might play. Bias against women in hiring practices continues to exist and one explanation is a perceived lack of confidence and assertiveness in the presentation skills of female candidates. Also, male students receive persistently lower scores than female students on standardized tests in reading and writing. It is possible that, as the other side of the confidence coin, male students' perceived assertiveness or lack of nuance negatively affects their performance in English class.The study considers “context” broadly both in a linguistic sense (e.g. how is a given linguistic form functioning?) but also in the social sense of how student and teacher identities and attitudes toward gender function in specific classrooms.
    • Evaluating Gender Similarities and Differences Using Metasynthesis.
      Author(s): Ethan Zell, Zlatan Krizan, Sabrina R. Teeter
      Institution: American Psychologist
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde’s provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced.
    • Expectations of Brilliance Underlie Gender Distributions Across Academic Disciplines
      Author(s): Sarah-Jane Leslie, Andrei Cimpian, Meredith Meyer, Edward Freeland
      Institution: Science
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The gender imbalance in STEM subjects dominates current debates about women’s underrepresentation in academia. However, women are well represented at the Ph.D. level in some sciences and poorly represented in some humanities (e.g., in 2011, 54% of U.S. Ph.D.’s in molecular biology were women versus only 31% in philosophy). We hypothesize that, across the academic spectrum, women are underrepresented in fields whose practitioners believe that raw, innate talent is the main requirement for success, because women are stereotyped as not possessing such talent. This hypothesis extends to African Americans’ underrepresentation as well, as this group is subject to similar stereotypes. Results from a nationwide survey of academics support our hypothesis (termed the field-specific ability beliefs hypothesis) over three competing hypotheses.
    • Girls Receive Conflicting Career Messages from Media, New Research Shows
      Author(s): E.A. Daniels, A.M. Sherman
      Institution: Oregon State University
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Teenage girls like and feel more similar to women in appearance-focused jobs such as models and actresses, though they find female CEOs and military pilots to be better role models, according to a new study.
    • Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance
      Author(s): Meredith Meyer, Andrei Cimpian, and Sarah-Jane Leslie
      Institution: Frontiers in Psychology
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the Ph.D. level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The field-specific ability beliefs (FAB) hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent—a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the FABs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field’s practitioners (the direct “gatekeepers”). Moreover, the FABs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field’s gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.
    • Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs
      Author(s): Matthew Morton, Jeni Klugman, Lucia Hanmer, Dorothe Singer
      Institution: The World Bank
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Gender at Work looks closely at existing constraints as well as policies and practices that show promise in closing the gaps. A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, the report advocates investing more in women's capabilities and eliminating structural barriers such as laws that bar women from owning property, accessing financing, or working without permission from a male relative.
    • Gender Gaps in Achievement and Participation in Multiple Introductory Biology Classrooms
      Author(s): Sarah L. Eddy, Sara E. Brownell, Mary Pat Wenderoth
      Institution: CBE—Life Sciences Education
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel.
    • Making More Room for Women in the Financial Planning Profession
      Institution: Certified Financial Planner Board Of Standards, Inc.
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT

      A new millennium for women, but where are the women CFP® professionals? To some degree, the low representation of women in financial planning belongs to the larger issue of gender disparity within the financial services industry as a whole. But the problem is even more acute among Certified Financial Planner professionals. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that women represent 31 percent of U.S. financial advisors—a definite minority, but still significantly higher than the 23 percent for women CFP® professionals. So Kistner wanted to investigate: What is preventing women from becoming CFP® professionals? Perhaps the collective experience and thoughts of the women around the table could begin to provide some answers.
    • The Simple Truth About the Gender Pay Gap
      Author(s): Linda Hallman
      Institution: AAUW
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      This guide provides key facts about the gender pay gap in the United States, along with explanations and resources. Information is organized around six common questions: 1. What is the pay gap? 2. Is the pay gap really about women's life choices? 3. How does the pay gap affect women of different demographics? 4. Is there a pay gap in all jobs? 5. What can I do to make a difference? 6. What should I do if I experience sex discrimination at work? The information in this guide will help you to effectively and confidently advocate for pay equity for all workers in your community.
    • Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality
      Institution: The World Bank
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      In the past 50 years women’s legal status has improved all over the world. But many laws still make it difficult for women to fully participate in economic life whether by getting jobs or starting businesses. Discriminatory rules bar women from certain jobs, restrict access to capital for women-owned firms and limit women’s capacity to make legal decisions. Gender differences in laws affect both developing and developed economies, and women in all regions.
    • Closing Doors: Exploring Gender and Subject Choice in Schools
      Author(s): Frances Saunders, Frances Ling
      Institution: Institute of Physics
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The purpose of this statistical study was to ascertain whether there are any patterns of bias in subject choices and whether schools tend to conform to traditional perceptions of some subjects being "girls" subjects and others "boys" subjects. One of the questions we wanted to answer is whether schools that send relatively more girls on to A-level physics also have a smaller gender imbalance in other subjects (for boys and girls), perhaps reflecting the school culture.
    • The Status of Women in the U.S. Media 2013
      Author(s): Diana Mitsu Klos
      Institution: Women’s Media Center
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The Women’s Media Center released its first report on the status of women in media in 2012, detailing persistent gender disparity in a range of media businesses and institutions that rank among the greatest influencers in American society. In this 2013 report, we have expanded the categories that were studied and analyzed, aiming to provoke meaningful discussion and increased accountability. And change. With females making up 51 percent of the U.S. population, there are business, societal and cultural imperatives that demand gender equality and equal participation. Diversifying the media landscape is critical to the health of our democracy.
    • Dreaming Big: What’s Gender Got to Do with It? The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on Career Aspirations of Middle Schoolers
      Author(s): Mary Shapiro, Patricia Deyton, Karyn L. Martin, Suzanne Carter, Diane Grossman, and Diane E. Hammer
      Institution: Simmons School of Management, Girl Scouts of America
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      To meet the needs of the U.S. economy, it is essential to have a workforce composed of talented women as well as men; losing up to half of the workforce's talent pool due to the influence of outdated stereotypes cannot continue to be acceptable. Yet our research shows that while middle school girls show solid career ambition and determination, social norms and messages persist in enforcing gender stereotypes. While parents and educators have sought to intentionally build the confidence and skills of young girls, our research substantiates that girl-serving organizations have particularly significant and effective roles as important partners in these efforts. Based on the findings of this study, we offer recommendations to both girl-serving organizations and girls' families to help stop the leakage of the talent of future generations of girls from the career pipeline.
    • Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation
      Author(s): Christianne Corbett, Catherine Hill
      Institution: AAUW
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      Graduating to a Pay Gap explores the pay gap between male and female college graduates working full time one year after graduation. You might expect the pay gap between men and women in this group of workers of similar age, education, and family responsibilities to be small or nonexistent. But in 2009--the most recent year for which data are available--women one year out of college who were working full time earned, on average, just 82 percent of what their male peers earned. After we control for hours, occupation, college major, employment sector, and other factors associated with pay, the pay gap shrinks but does not disappear. About one-third of the gap cannot be explained by any of the factors commonly understood to affect earnings, indicating that other factors that are more difficult to identify--and likely more difficult to measure--contribute to the pay gap.
  • Health/Wellness
    • A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Working Memory Capacity in Adolescents
      Author(s): Dianna Quach, Kristen E. Jastrowski Mano, Kristi Alexander
      Institution: Journal of Adolescent Health
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      In the last decade, mindfulness research in youth has grown rapidly. Mindfulness involves directing attention to the present-moment experience in a nonjudgmental and accepting way. Mindfulness is often recognized as a “practice” or “training,” requiring a constant shift from an “automatic pilot” mindset to one that comprises attention and awareness. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the impact of mindfulness meditation on working memory capacity (WMC) in adolescents. Results highlight the importance of investigating the components of mindfulness-based interventions among adolescents given that such interventions may improve cognitive function. More broadly, mindfulness interventions may be delivered in an abridged format, thus increasing their potential for integration into school settings and into existing treatment protocols.
    • Girls and Self-Care: Body Image
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      In the mid-1980s, experts found body dissatisfaction among women to be so commonplace that it constituted a form of "normative discontent." More recent research has thoroughly documented that body dissatisfaction also occurs at staggering rates among young girls and adolescent women. Indeed, surveys have found that 40% of third grade girls express a wish to be thinner and that by sixth grade, nearly 60% have tried to lose weight. By adolescence, as many as 80% of girls report that they are dissatisfied with their bodies and that by high school high rates of dieting persist and are supplemented by the use of diet products, purging, and vigorous exercise. Eating disorders, the extreme outcome of body dissatisfaction, occur overwhelmingly in women; as many as 3% of late adolescents and young adult women suffer from anorexia or bulimia nervosa.
    • Girls and Self-Care: Coping with Emotions
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The term coping is used to describe how people respond to stressful events and manage the emotions caused by these events. Children and adults use various coping strategies depending on the stressful event they are facing. There are some differences in how boys and girls cope with stress. Research indicates that while boys often use humor to cope with peer-related stress, girls are more likely than boys to cope through seeking support and expressing emotions. Other research shows that girls are more likely than boys to use engagement coping — a term used to describe coping strategies that are directed at a specific stressor and are generally intended to change the situation — to address problems with peers. However, girls are also more likely to ruminate on their negative feelings and to self-blame or worry in response to stress. It may be especially important to help girls “let go” of some concerns instead of ruminating when stressed.
    • Girls and Self-Care: Sleep
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Research on sleep deprivation in children and adolescents demonstrates that "sleep deprivation is not only common, but also represents a chronic problem among youths" with studies finding that as many as 43% of adolescents sleep seven hours or fewer each night when at least nine hours are typically recommended. Not surprisingly, sleep deprivation is associated with poor cognitive performance, emotional health, and physical health. Many studies have found that girls are more likely to suffer from sleep problems than boys with some researchers finding that girls are three times more likely than boys to have difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. As children, boys and girls tend to sleep equally well. A dramatic rise in sleep problems emerges with the onset of puberty for girls; a similar trend does not occur with the onset of puberty for boys. While hormonal causes may play a role for the increased rate of sleep problems in girls relative to boys several other factors that interfere with sleep in childhood and adolescence have also been identified by researchers. These include the use of technology, adolescents' efforts to "catch up" on sleep during weekends, and the consumption of caffeine.
    • Girls and Test Anxiety
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Many girls experience intense text anxiety despite strong performance in class, on homework, and even on tests. Girls suffer from test anxiety more than boys do, perhaps because girls have been found to feel more threatened in situations where they are being evaluated. Test anxiety comes with real consequences: girls dread assessments, doubt their ability, and ultimately underperform on tests. Even when compared to boys who suffer from test anxiety, research finds that girls experience higher levels of test anxiety and that their scores suffer more. Test anxiety often manifests in uncomfortable symptoms as a racing heart, trouble concentrating, and difficulty recalling and applying relevant material. When girls experience these symptoms they often turn to ineffective test-taking techniques: they give up and start filling in answers randomly, or they exert too much energy on the test by anxiously double-checking and changing answers. Either way, their scores go down.
    • Girls, Sleep, and Mindfulness
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Sleep deprivation is a rising concern for children and adolescents. While it is recommended that adolescents sleep 9-10 hours per night, only 20% reach that optimal amount and nearly half average less than 8 hours on weeknights. Teenagers’ sleep generally decreases over the course of adolescence. While improving children’s sleep has been a recent focus of media attention, overall adolescent sleep has decreased significantly over the past 20 years. Research has long established connections between sleep deprivation in adolescence and negative consequences related to mood, anxiety, behavior, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, substance use and academic functioning. Newer research identifies factors that interfere with optimal adolescent sleep and illuminates why some teenagers sleep more than others.
    • Romantic Relationships, Self-Advocacy and Consent
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      More than 20 years of scholarship tells us that when adults talk with girls about their physical and romantic relationships, we usually ignore girls’ sexuality and positive sexual self-direction and focus entirely on the risks they face. Ironically, research finds that girls who aren’t tuned in to their own sexual wishes and rights are the ones most likely to censor and compromise themselves in relationships and thus jeopardize their sexual health. Further, endorsing conventional beliefs about gender roles may make girls more likely to experience negative sexual outcomes; studies find that girls who accept sexist media messages are less likely to take the steps necessary to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections than girls who question chauvinism. In sum, effective sexual education programming for girls should be grounded in helping them focus on their emerging romantic and sexual selves and encourage them to question traditional beliefs about feminine rights and roles.
    • Contextualizing the “Student Body”: Is Exposure to Older Students Associated with Body Dissatisfaction in Female Early Adolescents?
      Author(s): Jaine Strauss, Jacklyn M. Sullivan, Christine E. Sullivan, Stephen J. Sullivan, Chloe E. Wittenberg
      Institution: Macalester College
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Research on teens’ body dissatisfaction documents the role of proximal social influences (e.g., peers and family) and distal social influences (e.g., mass media) but largely ignores intermediate contextual factors such as school environment. Is there a link between individual body image and student body? We assessed drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and body objectification in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,536 female students educated in U.S. school districts varying in the degree to which younger students (fifth and sixth graders) are educated alongside older students (seventh and eighth graders). We studied three different grade groupings: junior high (Grades K–6 housed together/Grades 7–8 housed together), middle school (K–5/6–8), and extended middle school (K–4/5–8). As predicted, fifth and sixth graders attending schools with older students reported more negative body experiences than their age peers attending schools with younger students; similar effects were evident among seventh graders who had been educated with older peers during fifth and sixth grade. Our findings highlight the importance of considering contextual factors in understanding young women’s body image.
    • My Sister’s Keeper: Identifying Eating Pathology Through Peer Networks
      Author(s): Lisa Damour, Tori Cordiano, Eileen Anderson-Fye
      Institution: Taylor & Francis Group
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      This study evaluated a novel intervention designed to teach middle and high school girls to inform adults of the early signs of an eating disorder. Students completed measures assessing the likelihood of talking to a peer about her eating behavior, encouraging a peer to talk to an adult, sharing concerns about a peer with an adult, or talking to an adult about concerns related to herself. Participants demonstrated increased likelihood of talking to an adult about a friend's eating following intervention. Results indicate it may be possible to significantly increase girls' willingness to address or share concerns about a friend's eating.
    • The Effectiveness of a School-Based Mindfulness Training as a Program to Prevent Stress in Elementary School Children
      Author(s): Eva van de Weijer-Bergsma, George Langenberg, Rob Brandsma, Frans J. Oort, Susan M. Bögels
      Institution: Mindfulness
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. In this study, the immediate and longer-term effects of a class-based mindfulness intervention for elementary school children were investigated as a primary prevention program (MindfulKids) to reduce stress and stress-related mental health and behavioral problems. Some primary prevention effects on stress and well-being were found directly after training and some became more apparent at follow-up. MindfulKids seems to have a primary preventive effect on stress, well-being, and behavior in schoolchildren, as reported by children and parents. Exploratory analysis revealed that children who ruminate more are affected differently by the intervention than children who ruminate less. It is concluded that mindfulness training can be incorporated in elementary schools at the class level, letting all children benefit from the intervention.
    • The State of Girls: Thriving or Surviving?
      Author(s): Kamla Modi, Judy Schoenberg, Mark Mather, Rena Linden
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute, Population Reference Bureau
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Examining girls' well-being across each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, this report ranks each state based on an index of girls' well-being. Five indicators are considered: physical health and safety, economic well-being, education, emotional health, and extracurricular/out-of-school-time activities.
    • Girls, Stress and Well-Being: What Parents Need to Know
      Author(s): Belle Liang, Renée Spencer
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Despite broad recognition that today’s adolescent girls are achieving unprecedented levels of success while experiencing unprecedented levels of stress, almost no research exists on the relational factors that exacerbate and ameliorate stress in girls, particularly high achieving girls. The 21st Century Athenas Study aimed to help bridge this gap in the research and provide a deeper understanding of stress and well-being in adolescent girls. Specifically, the study examined the complex interactions between girls’ relationships (with parents, teachers, peers, school community) and stress, emotional well-being, and academic achievement. While there are many other factors that may influence girls’ stress and well-being directly and indirectly, this project aimed to answer questions such as: How do girls’ relationships contribute to their performing well but feeling bad? What kinds of relationships contribute to helping girls thrive?
    • The State of Girls: Unfinished Business
      Author(s): Judy Schoenberg, Kamla Modi, Kimberlee Salmond, Mark Mather, Linda Jacobsen
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute, Population Reference Bureau
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The State of Girls report stakes out key issues and major trends affecting girls’ healthy development in the United States today. The report contains current statistical indicators and projections about the future that are focused on key issues such as the health, safety, and educational achievement of girls, as well as demographic trends. This report shows that while progress has been made for girls in some areas, including educational attainment and access to technology, many girls are being left behind. In particular, African American and Hispanic girls face significant challenges as they transition to adulthood.

    • Pretend Play, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Children: A Follow-up Study
      Author(s): Julie A. Fiorelli, Sandra W. Russ
      Institution: American Journal of Play
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      Researchers, the authors state, link play to cognitive and affective processes important for a child’s development and overall well-being. In this article, the authors examine the relationships involving pretend play, coping, and subjective well-being (the last of which they conceptualize as positive affect—positive mood—and life satisfaction) and investigate the stability and predictive power of play skills. They report on a study in which they measured the pretend play, coping skills, positive affect, and life satisfaction of thirty girls in kindergarten through fourth grade and compared these measures to the girls’ pretend play eighteen months earlier. They found that affect or emotional themes in play related to positive mood in daily life and that imagination and organization in play related to coping ability. Their results, they concluded, also support the stability of imagination and organization in pretend play over time.
  • History/Perceptions of Girls' Schools
    • Rights and Wrongs in the Debate Over Single-Sex Schooling
      Author(s): Rosemary Salomone
      Institution: Boston University Law Review
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      This Article uses the ACLU challenges, together with the Science article, as a framework for examining the forces and motives that initially inspired and continue to derail the current revival of single-sex programs; the rights and wrongs that animate the ongoing controversy; and the measures needed to set the discussion on a track that is ideologically neutral, legally and empirically sound, and globally relevant. In the process, it analyzes a sample of studies commonly invoked by opponents as well as other findings refuting those arguments, and weighs the cultural, political, and economic factors that may affect outcomes among different student populations, both in the United States and abroad. Overall, it presents a nuanced argument that denounces hard-wired biological justifications for separating students by sex while offering social rationales and research evidence supporting the benefits that some students gain from evenhandedly designed programs that comply with the law. In the end, it offers a transnational perspective that underscores the many complexities underlying claims about the "end of men" and the "rise of women."
    • Single-Sex Classes & Student Outcomes: Evidence from North Carolina
      Author(s): Michael R. Strain
      Institution: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The effects of single-sex education are hotly contested, both in academic and policy circles. Despite this heated debate, there exists little credible empirical evidence of the effect of a U.S. public school's decision to offer single-sex classrooms on the educational outcomes of students. This study seeks to fill this hole. Using administrative records for third through eighth graders in North Carolina public schools, the paper finds evidence that the offering of single-sex mathematics courses is associated with lower performance on end-of-grade math exams, and finds no evidence that the offering of single-sex reading scores increases performance on reading exams. Robustness checks are conducted. While the mathematics results are robust to the checks, the reading results fail an important check, and the baseline reading results should be interpreted with this in mind. Evidence of significant heterogeneity in the effect across schools is also presented.
    • The Education of Girls and Women in the United States: A Historical Perspective
      Author(s): Jennifer C. Madigan
      Institution: Montgomery Center for Research in Child & Adolescent Development
      Year Of Study: 2009
      VIEW REPORT
      This essay will provide a brief historical overview of the educational experiences of girls and women in the United States dating from the early colonial settlement years to the present time. From "dame schools" in the 1700s to seminaries for teacher training, women and girls have historically been prepared for professions related to caretaking, such as nursing and teaching. A dramatic shift occurred in the 1970s with the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, which protects students from discrimination on the basis of sex in educational programs that receive federal financial assistance, and the Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA), enacted in 1974. In spite of new policies, many of the educational patterns of girls continued. Several researchers in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that female students in coeducational classrooms received less opportunity to participate and less feedback from teachers than their male counterparts (Grossman, 1998; Riordan, 1990; Sadker & Sadker, 1995). With the passage of No Child Left Behind in 2002 and the resulting changes in federal regulations (final rule changes published in 2006), prior restrictions on the establishment of single sex public schools and classrooms were lifted. Initial research on U.S. single sex programs indicate promise of academic achievement for girls and demonstrate socio-emotional benefits for girls attending single sex schools in urban, high poverty areas (United States Department of Education, 2008; author, 2008). Current advocates of single-sex education believe that it should be available as an option for all students, not just for children of privilege.
    • Struggling Girls: Single-Gender Education May Be the Answer
      Year Of Study: 2007
      VIEW REPORT
      A survey of over 1,000 young alumnae of all-girls schools supports the finding that women recognize socio-emotional benefits of their education. These graduates reported that among other things their school contributed to self-confidence, gave them leadership opportunities, prepared them for the transition to college, and supported their individual personal development.
  • Leadership
    • Barriers and Bias: The Status of Women in Leadership
      Author(s): Catherine Hill, Kevin Miller, Kathleen Benson, Grace Handley
      Institution: The American Association of University Women
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Despite women’s impressive gains in education and the workplace over the past 50 years, men greatly outnumber women in leadership, especially in top positions. Barriers and Bias: The Status of Women in Leadership delves into the reasons for these leadership gaps and proposes concrete steps for narrowing and, ultimately, eliminating them.
    • Living Leadership in the Lower School
      Author(s): Mariandl M.C. Hufford, Sarah Anne Eckert, Wendy L. Hill, Darlyne Bailey, Melissa Emmerson, Donna Linder
      Institution: National Association of Independent Schools
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      The persistent gender gap in top leadership roles in the United States is well documented in both academic and popular literature. To address the disparity between men and women in top leadership roles, it is imperative for schools to hone in on the most effective ways to develop the leadership capacity of girls throughout their academic program. This article offers a case study of the creation of one leadership identity development program for lower schoolers in an all-girls school and reviews best practices for developing leadership programs in independent schools more broadly.
    • Leaning Out: Teen Girls and Leadership Biases
      Author(s): Richard Weissbourd
      Institution: Making Caring Common Project, Harvard Graduate School of Education
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Our research suggests that the teen girls who are key to closing the gender gap appear to face an age-old and powerful barrier: gender bias, and specifically biases about their leadership. According to our findings, many teen boys and teen girls appear to have biases against girls and many women leaders and teen perceive their peers as biased against female leaders. Further, our research suggests that some mothers prefer teen boys over teen girls as leaders.
    • Women and Leadership: Public Says Women are Equally Qualified, but Barriers Persist
      Author(s): Kim Parker, Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Wendy Wang, Anna Brown, Eileen Patten
      Institution: Pew Research Center
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This report explores public attitudes about gender and leadership with a particular focus on leadership in U.S. politics and business. The analysis is based on two new Pew Research Center surveys. The main survey was conducted Nov. 12-21, 2014, among a sample of 1,835 adults--921 women and 914 men-- 18 years of age or older. The survey was conducted by the GfK Group using KnowledgePanel, its nationally representative online research panel. A second survey was conducted Nov. 20-23, 2014, among 1,004 adults, 18 years of age or older, living in the continental United States. This survey was conducted over the telephone (landline and cellular phone) under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International.
    • Running for a Change: Girls and Politics Pulse Poll
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      The Girl Scout Research Institute conducted a “pulse poll” with a national sample of 1,088 teen and tween girls ages 11–17 in the U.S. to determine their interest in, attitude toward, and perception of politics. The research shows that girls are interested in politics and have had an array of political and civic engagement experiences both in and out of school. However, their interest and experience does not add up to future political career intent. Girls are well aware of the stereotypes that exist for females and political careers, especially as perpetuated by the media, and they believe that women are quite capable of pursuing political careers. Girls call for more guidance, opportunities, and general support to further their political interests and capabilities.
    • Benchmarking Women’s Leadership in the United States
      Institution: Colorado Women's College
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      By examining top performers and positional leaders, we uncovered data trends revealing that women are often among the highest performers, yet are often not proportionally represented in top leadership. Among those women holding positional leadership, frequently the individual, organization, office and/or entity perform exceptionally well. To illustrate, a higher percentage of women sit in leadership positions in the top ten organizations, offices, or entities than in the industry as a whole. Additionally, our methodology allowed us to uncover women's performance relative to men's consistently across most sectors whenever objective measurements could be used. To determine performance we examined raw figures, such as profits, audiences, circulations and sales, and found that women are either outperforming men comparatively or proportionally. Another trend emerged when examining both positional leadership and performance. In new sectors, such as technology and social media, where gatekeepers have not yet emerged, women are better represented in positional leadership and performance.
    • Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and the Impact within Corporate Boards
      Author(s): Gita Patel, Sophie Buiting
      Institution: The Commonwealth Secretariat, Social Transformation Programmes Division
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Current findings from the ‘science of decision making’ reveal key gender distinctions in the behaviors between women and men, and how these behavioural differences influence and shape decisions as well as the outcomes of leadership styles employed. The paper firstly sets out the business background so that female leadership is viewed in the context of demographics and discusses the key challenges faced by women in a global and personal setting. The report then discusses key decision science theories, a thorough overview of gender differences in the personal and professional sphere, an overview of the causes of these gender differences, a discussion of existing solutions, and a list of recommendations for women, board members and policymakers.
    • Tapping on the Glass: The Intersection of Leadership and Gender in Independent School Administration
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ostos
      Institution: University of California, San Diego and California State University, San Marcos
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
       This study presents a national study of independent school leadership. Using a mixed methods approach, the study includes quantitative data about leadership styles of heads of school, as well as other demographic indicators that highlight their paths and leadership roles. The qualitative portion of the study culminates in one-on-one interviews with eight female heads of schools to examine their experiences in achieving top educational administration positions. The study results demonstrate that heads of independent schools are generally transformational leaders in their styles. Further, it illuminates the fact that female heads demonstrate more transformational leadership styles than their male counterparts. It also indicates that male heads of school ascended to headship faster than women. Finally, it outlines how the individual voices of female heads collectively indicate that female heads' natural styles of leadership, which are based in relationships, lend themselves to the characteristics of transformational leadership.
    • Teen Girls on Business: Are They Being Empowered?
      Author(s): Deborah Marlino, Fiona Wilson
      Institution: The Committee of 200, Simmons College School of Management
      Year Of Study: 2002
      VIEW REPORT
      The Teen Girls on Business study provides a rich understanding of how middle and high school girls view business as a career and life opportunity. We examined the key factors affecting girls’ attitudes to their careers and their perceptions of business, and how these attitudes and perceptions differ from those of boys as well as across girls of diverse racial/ethnic groups. We also identified key sources of influence -- media, family, and education -- affecting teen girls in their career aspirations. We provide a strong foundation of empirical data to stimulate a national dialogue on the importance of empowering girls for business. Our most striking finding is that despite teen girls’ significant economic participation, the power of business as a force for economic and social change remains invisible to them. It is our hope that this dialogue will generate awareness of the issues and catalyze actionable programs to educate and excite girls for careers in business.
    • Women Mentoring Women
      Author(s): Margaret Schlegel
      Institution: American Psychological Association
      Year Of Study: 2000
      VIEW REPORT
      Women mentors appear to make all the difference in the academic careers of women graduate students. Women students, in particular, are urged to find mentors who can help them navigate their careers and guide them in successfully combining full-time careers with satisfying personal and family lives. But where are the women mentors to lead the way?
  • Philanthropy
    • Top Reports on Women and Girls: Supporting Gender Lens Giving and Investing
      Author(s): Jacki Zehner
      Institution: Jacquelyn & Gregory Zehner Foundation, Women Moving Millions
      Year Of Study: 2017
      VIEW REPORT
      This document contains 400 reports across 18 different categories, including arts and entertainment, economic empowerment, health and reproductive rights, science and technology, and political representation. This list will serve as a great resource for those currently working on research on women and girls, both to see what is already out there so as not to needlessly repeat research, as well as to get a better picture of what questions still need to be answered. 


    • Giving to Women and Girls: Who Gives, and Why?
      Author(s): Debra Mesch, Una Osili, Andrea Pactor, Jacqueline Ackerman, Jonathan Bergdoll, Elizabeth Dale
      Institution: IUPUI Women’s Philanthropy Institute
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      This study highlights new data to understanding who gives to women’s and girls’ causes and their motivations for support. We conducted a two-part, mixed-methods study in the United States. First, we fielded a brief survey among a nationally representative survey panel. Second, we conducted seven focus groups among United Way and women’s fund donors who actively funded women’s and girls’ causes as well as donors who focused on other areas in their giving. In the survey, we find that among people giving to charity, half of women and 40 percent of men self-report giving to at least one cause that primarily affects women and girls. Women are both more likely to give to women’s and girls’ causes and give larger amounts to these causes, and are more likely to report giving to domestic violence organizations, women’s centers, LGBT rights, cancer care and research, and economic opportunities for women and girls. In the focus groups, women report giving to women’s and girls’ causes based on their personal experiences, including experiencing discrimination and having children, and because they believe giving to women and girls provides the best social return. Barriers to giving to women’s and girls’ causes include the complexity and scalability of women’s issues, the sex-segregated nature of women’s giving, and the connection to political issues which are often embedded in women’s causes. While this study provides valuable new research, more research is needed to understand generational differences among donors and how organizations focusing on women and girls can increase donor support.
    • Do Women Give More? Findings from Three Unique Data Sets on Charitable Giving
      Author(s): Debra Mesch, Una Osili, Jacqueline Ackerman, Elizabeth Dale
      Institution: IUPUI Women’s Philanthropy Institute
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This study seeks to explore gender differences in the incidence and amount of charitable giving. We analyze data from three unique data sets: the Philanthropy Panel Study, the Bank of America/U.S. Trust Studies of High Net Worth Philanthropy, and the Million Dollar List to investigate the intra-household factors of income and education on charitable giving overall, and to religious and secular causes. We confirm prior studies finding that single women have a higher likelihood of giving and give a higher average dollar amount than single men, but find no gender differences among high net worth single men and women. Being married increases the likelihood and amount of charitable giving for both men and women. Within married couples, differences in the husbands’ or wives; earned and unearned income influences the likelihood and amount of giving along with where charitable giving is directed. This study uses new waves of data to examine previous, sometimes conflicting findings about gender differences in philanthropy in order to provide a more nuanced view of how women and men give.
    • Inspiring Million Dollar Giving from Women: 6 Things You Should Know
      Institution: Graham-Pelton
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Women are often under-cultivated, under-solicited, and misunderstood when it comes to their individual philanthropy. These six national trends help us to better understand what motivates women philanthropists and inspires them to make $1M+ gifts.
    • Philanthropic Investment in Secondary Education; Forecasting and Evaluating Return and the Importance of Case Studies and History
      Author(s): Julie Hogg
      Institution: St Mary’s School, Cambridge
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      To understand the value of a philanthropic investment is to determine the best possible outcome from the point of view of the destination of the gift, based on a clear assessment of the aims and objectives of the charity. Focusing specifically on philanthropic investment in secondary education, how can we measure the return in relation to the short term and long term impacts on pupils, the institutions, stakeholders and the economy and how we can achieve a balance between return on investment and profitability for the educational institution?
    • Where Do Men and Women Give? Gender Differences in the Motivations and Purposes for Charitable Giving
      Author(s): Debra Mesch, Una Osili, Jacqueline Ackerman, Elizabeth Dale
      Institution: IUPUI Women’s Philanthropy Institute
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This study seeks to explore gender differences in the purpose and motivations for charitable giving. We analyze new waves of data from the Philanthropy Panel Study, the Bank of America/U.S. Trust Studies of High Net Worth Philanthropy, and the Million Dollar List to investigate where men and women direct their charitable gifts, the influence of charitable decision making on giving, and why men’s and women’s priorities may differ. We find that generally, women are more likely than men to give to every charitable subsector except neighborhoods and communities and tend to spread their giving out. However, high net worth women exhibit fewer differences in their giving as compared to high net worth men. Women prioritize issues and areas such as women’s rights, human rights, and the environment, while men favor the economy and national security. Finally, we find that women are generally motivated to give by their political or philosophical beliefs or their involvement in an organization.
    • Insights on Wealth and Worth: Women and Wealth
      Author(s): U.S Trust
      Institution: U.S Trust: Bank of America Private Wealth Management
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      As part of the 2013 Insights on Wealth and Worth, U.S. Trust surveyed high net worth women across the country to better understand their perspective and behavior related to wealth and wealth management. This study reveals that women are focused on investment growth, but are cautious in their actions. The majority of women feel confident in their overall financial knowledge, yet they feel less prepared than men to handle important financial matters such as saving for retirement. Planning and financial decision making is influenced by the sense of responsibility women feel for the wellbeing of immediate and extended family, the community and society at large. Women also feel far more strongly than men about the social, political and environmental impact of investment decisions, and their actions reflect a desire to invest time, money and energy in companies and causes that support their values. This research builds on a vast body of proprietary research and third-party analysis conducted by U.S. Trust as part of its Women and Wealth offering.
  • Play/Creativity
    • Fostering Pretend Play Skills and Creativity in Elementary School Girls: A Group Play Intervention
      Author(s): Jessica Hoffmann, Sandra Russ
      Institution: American Psychological Association
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Pretend play is an important part of child development, associated with constructions of adaptive functioning such as creative thinking and positive affect. Research has demonstrated that interventions to improve play skills can be effective. In the current study, a 6-session, pretend play intervention was administered to 40 participants, ages 5 to 8 years old, enrolled in an elementary school for girls. The findings of this study suggest the benefits of pretend play in child development and demonstrate the feasibility of school-based interventions for improving play and creativity skills.
    • The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery
      Author(s): Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke, Laura Schulz
      Institution: National Institute of Health
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Motivated by computational analyses, this report examines how teaching affects exploration and discovery. Experiment 1 investigates children’s exploratory play after an adult pedagogically demonstrated a function of a toy, after an interrupted pedagogical demonstration, after a naïve adult demonstrated the function, and at baseline. Preschoolers in the pedagogical condition focused almost exclusively on the target function; by contrast, children in the other conditions explored broadly. Experiment 2 shows that children restrict their exploration both after direct instruction to themselves and after overhearing direct instruction given to another child; they do not show this constraint after observing direct instruction given to an adult or after observing a non-pedagogical intentional action. These findings are discussed in this study as the result of rational inductive biases. In pedagogical contexts, a teacher’s failure to provide evidence for additional functions provides evidence for their absence; such contexts generalize from child to child (because children are likely to have comparable states of knowledge) but not from adult to child. Thus, pedagogy promotes efficient learning but at a cost: children are less likely to perform potentially irrelevant actions but also less likely to discover novel information.
    • Gender Differences in the Effects of Anticipated Evaluation on Creativity
      Author(s): John Baer
      Institution: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
      Year Of Study: 1997
      VIEW REPORT
      Gender differences in the effects of anticipated evaluation on creative performance were investigated. Participants (66 eighth-grade girls and 62 eighth-grade boys) wrote original poems and stories under conditions favoring both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. These poems and stories were later judged for creativity by experts. There was a significant Gender x Motivational Condition interaction (p = .01). Girls' creativity decreased markedly under extrinsic constraints, but boys' did not. Implications for both teaching and research are discussed in this report.
  • Policy
    • Closing the Gap: Adolescent Girls' Access to Education in Conflict-Affected Settings
      Author(s): Mayesha Alam, Roslyn Warren, Anna Applebaum
      Institution: Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Today, 62 million girls around the world are not in school, and at least 20 million of them live in conflict-affected and fragile settings as refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), or otherwise vulnerable populations. For policymakers and practitioners alike, understanding and being able to address this nexus between girls’ education and fragile settings is crucial. This brief highlights the organizations and institutions driving innovation in this space, and demonstrates possible pathways and successful strategies for confronting components of this global challenge. With the evidence-based solutions featured in this brief, engaged organizations can leverage their unique capacities to let the 62 million girls who are not in school learn.
    • Ritualized Girling: School Uniforms and the Compulsory Performance of Gender
      Author(s): Alison Happel
      Institution: Journal of Gender Studies
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      School uniforms have been utilized by a number of schools in attempts to increase discipline and academic performance. This paper seeks to explore the relationships between gender, gender performance, and school uniforms through exploring writing on discipline, performance, and uniforms and then exploring some specific contemporary policy on school uniforms in the US.
    • Single-Sex Education: What Does Research Tell Us?
      Author(s): Emer Smyth
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      There has been considerable research and policy debate internationally about whether single-sex schooling yields academic and social advantages for girls and/or boys. This article outlines some of the findings from research on single-sex education conducted in English-speaking countries. In particular, it looks at research on the impact of single-sex schooling on academic achievement, subject take-up, personal and social development, and adult outcomes. In doing so, it attempts to provide a critical perspective on some of the key issues involved in comparing the two settings.
    • Early Implementation of Public Single-Sex Schools: Perceptions and Characteristics
      Author(s): Cornelius Riordan, Bonnie J. Faddis, Margaret Beam, Andrew Seager, Adam Tanney, Rebecca DiBiase, Monya Ruffin, Jeffrey Valentine
      Institution: RMC Research Corporation, U.S. Department of Education
      Year Of Study: 2008
      VIEW REPORT
      The systematic review of the 40 best quantitative studies lends some empirical support to the hypothesis that single sex schools may be helpful in terms of academic achievement and socio-emotional development. The survey and observational studies found that public single-sex schools served primarily nonwhite, high-poverty students in urban areas. Descriptive evidence from the surveys and site visits suggest that single sex schools may have advantages for both boys and girls in terms of fostering socio-emotional health and promoting positive peer interactions. Other perceived benefits of single-sex schooling cited by teachers and principals include a greater degree of order and control and fewer distractions in the classroom. The study design does not support inferences about the effects of single sex schools on socio-emotional outcomes. Also, because the study was descriptive, the study team was not able to determine whether these socio-emotional benefits had an impact on student achievement. The study team did, however, identify a need for more professional development for teachers on meeting the distinct needs of boys and girls in single-sex public schools.
    • Single-Sex Versus Coeducational Schooling: A Systematic Review
      Author(s): Fred Mael, Alex Alonso, Doug Gibson, Kelly Rogers, Mark Smith
      Institution: American Institutes for Research, RMC Research Corporation, U.S. Department of Education
      Year Of Study: 2005
      VIEW REPORT
      A number of theoretical advantages to both coeducational (CE) and single-sex (SS) schools have been advanced by their advocates, a subset of whom have focused on specifically on the potential benefits of SS schooling for disadvantaged males who have poor success rates in the educational system. The interpretation of results of previous studies in the private sector or the public sectors of other countries has been hotly debated, resulting in varying policy recommendations based on the same evidence. However, no reviews on this topic have been conducted using a systematic approach similar to that of the Campbell Collaboration (CC) or the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). Thus, the objective of this review is to document the outcome evidence for or against the efficacy of single-sex education as an alternative form of school organization using an unbiased, transparent, and objective selection process adapted from the standards of the CC and WWC to review quantitative studies.
    • Theoretical Arguments For and Against Single-Sex Schools: A Critical Analysis of the Explanations
      Author(s): Fred Mael, Mark Smith, Alex Alonso, Kelly Rogers, and Doug Gibson
      Institution: American Institute for Research
      Year Of Study: 2004
      VIEW REPORT
      Some historical perspective on the evolution of concerns surrounding single-sex (SS) and coeducational (CE) schooling is in order. Modern-day research on the topic resulted from the seminal work of Coleman, who claimed that SS was needed as a counterpoint to the "rating and dating" atmosphere in CE schools. This led to an extended period of research in which the primary question was whether SS or CE students achieved more academically. This was highlighted by the work of Lee, Bryk, Marsh, Riordan, and others in the 1980s and early 1990s. The findings regarding academic achievement for middle-class students have been inconclusive or somewhat favorable of SS schooling. The current state of research suggests that additional studies are unlikely to show SS schooling to be so much poorer that is should be banned as an alternative choice for parents. Conversely, studies with academic score criteria are unlikely to show SS schooling to be so superior that it can overcome all of the societal-level concerns of opponents.
  • Readiness for College/Real World
    • Which Is More Consequential: Fields of Study or Institutional Selectivity?
      Author(s): Yingyi Ma and Gokhan Savas
      Institution: The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University and the Association for the Study of Higher Education
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The persisting gender pay gap favoring men among college graduates is a puzzle given women's remarkable success in postsecondary education. This article examines income disparities among recent college graduates by intersecting gender and social class and evaluating the relative importance of fields of study and institutional selectivity. Data from National Education Longitudinal Studies: 88-2000 and its postsecondary transcript data show that women reap less earnings advantage from selective institutions but similar advantages from lucrative fields compared to men. Our within-gender analysis shows that lucrative fields of study can offset the earnings disadvantages associated with less privileged social class and attending nonselective institutions for women, but not for men.
    • Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools
      Author(s): Hyunjoon Park, Jere R. Behrman, and Jaesung Choi
      Institution: The University of Pennsylvania
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul, the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools, to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. Attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools rather than attending coeducational schools is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Single-sex schools have a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after taking into account various school-level variables such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.
    • Women Graduates of Single-Sex and Coeducational High Schools: Differences in their Characteristics and the Transition to College
      Author(s): Linda J. Sax
      Institution: The Sudikoff Family Institute for Education & New Media and UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies
      Year Of Study: 2009
      VIEW REPORT
      A well-documented, national study that shows the statistically significant edge girls' school graduates have over their coed peers. This research by Professor Linda Sax of the UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies disentangles the effects of single-sex education from confounding demographic influences. The statistical base of the girls' school advantage is fully explicated and illustrated in this authoritative publication.
    • The Girls’ School Experience: A Survey of Young Alumnae of Single-Sex Schools
      Author(s): Jennifer Beck, Dreolin Fleischer
      Institution: National Coalition of Girls' Schools
      Year Of Study: 2005
      VIEW REPORT
      The goal of this study was to examine the perceived outcomes associated with girls’ school attendance, with an emphasis on collecting data from alumnae at the end of their first year of college. Research study participants were asked to reflect on and characterize their girls’ school experience, their academic and career aspirations, and their perceptions of how well their schools prepared them for the academic and social transitions to college. This study found that NCGS member schools provided young women with high quality and rigorous academic experiences that prepared them well for the academic demands of college. Alumnae reported that their schools were to be commended for fostering a sense of community as well as self-esteem and individuality amongst students. In slight contrast to the very positive ratings associated with girls’ academic experiences and preparation, alumnae also reported feeling slightly less prepared for interacting with men, both in and out of the classroom. Students also shared anxiety that they were not prepared enough for the “real world.”
  • Self Esteem/Confidence
    • Girls Feeling Good at School: School Gender Environment, Internalization and Awareness of Socio-Cultural Attitudes Associations with Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls
      Author(s): Victoria L. Cribb, Anne M. Haase
      Institution: Journal of Adolescence
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single- sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between sociocultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls.
    • Having It All: Girls and Financial Literacy
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Having it All: Girls and Financial Literacy reveals that most girls expect to be independent and financially empowered, see few gender barriers in their way, and have high expectations for their future financial lives. However, there still exist important gaps in their financial acumen. The revelation: while 90 percent of girls say it is important to learn how to manage money, only 12 percent feel "very confident" making financial decisions. Parents can play a powerful role in filling these gaps by having discussions with their daughters about money and finances. 
    • Mood and Self-Esteem in Middle School Girls
      Author(s): Jeanne Duax
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The goals for this study were to assess middle school girls’ feelings of anxiety, worry, and sadness to determine if, and to what degree, these feelings are related to: Girls’ self-esteem in different areas of functioning: academics, athletics, appearance, behavioral conduct, and peer relationships; Teachers’ ratings of girls’ competencies in different areas of functioning; Girls’ performance on archival scholastic data; The quantity and quality of girls’ peer networks.
    • Pretend Play, Creativity and Adaptive Functioning
      Author(s): Sandra Russ, Jessica Dillon Hoffmann, Julie Fiorelli, and Claire Wallace
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Pretend play is an activity during which children use fantasy, make-believe and symbolism. Pretend play involves observable cognitive and affective processes such as imagination, organization of a story and the expression of emotion. The Affect in Play Scale (APS), a measure of these processes, can be used to explore the relationships among play skills and other areas of child development. Piaget theorized that play provides a context in which children interact with their environment and create their own knowledge about the world. Fein viewed play as a natural form of creativity for children, while Russ thinks that pretend play is a foundation of adult creativity. Research consistently demonstrates that children's pretend play is associated with areas of adaptive functioning such as creativity, emotion regulation, coping and literacy. Research also suggests that play interventions can successfully improve children's play skills.
    • Purpose and Resilience
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Purpose is "a stable and generalized intention to accomplish something that is at once meaningful to the self and of consequence to the world beyond the self." Although purpose involves setting and striving toward long-term goals, these goals extend beyond the self and include a desire to make a difference in the world. The construct of purpose operates independently from intellectual ability, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Sense of purpose evolves as children age; although younger children are less able to identify long-term purpose, they are still able to set short-term goals related to purpose, such as participating in a classroom service project or practicing their role in a grade-wide performance. Beginning in adolescence, children are better able to conceptualize long-term goals and to develop a sense of self within the bigger picture of the world.
    • Searching for a Sense of Purpose: The Role of Parents and Effects on Self-Esteem among Female Adolescents
      Author(s): Meghan C.C. Blattner, Belle Liang, Terese Lund, Renee Spencer
      Institution: The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Achieving a sense of purpose during adolescence is a developmental asset; however, searching for that purpose may be a developmental stressor. Supportive parent–child relationships may help youth during this stressful experience. The present study included 207 female students in the sixth, eighth, and tenth grades from two competitive private schools. Searching for purpose negatively predicted self-esteem. Hierarchical linear regression examined moderating effects of parental trust and alienation on searching for purpose as a predictor of self-esteem. Parental alienation significantly moderated the association between search for purpose and girls’ self-esteem; conversely, parental trust did not moderate the association. Results suggest that parent–child relationships characterized by high levels of parental alienation may exacerbate the pernicious effects of search for purpose. Person-based analyses found four clusters corresponding to Foreclosed Purpose, Diffused Purpose, Uncommitted Purpose/Moratorium, and Achieved Purpose. We discuss implications for practice and research based on these results.
    • I Matter. You Matter: Defining Self-Respect vs. Self-Esteem and Measuring This Critical Youth-Development Asset
      Author(s): Nancy S. Niemi
      Institution: The Respect Institute
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      As part of those concerned with youth development across multiple contexts who wish to affect fundamental indicators of well-being, we at the The Respect Institute feel it is imperative that the definitions of self-esteem and self-respect be separated. Our work focuses on the the latter, self-respect, as a distinctive and foundational measure of human emotional health. The purpose of this paper is to define self-respect and its importance as a concept independent from self-esteem, and make the case for a self-respect scale as an evaluation tool in measuring the effectiveness of our youth development work at The Respect Institute.
    • Shielding Girls from Stereotype Threat
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      The term stereotype threat describes the condition of being at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about a group to which one belongs. This phenomenon was recognized by psychologists who demonstrated that the mere existence of a negative stereotype can suppress the academic performance of members of the negatively stereotyped group. Researchers have since found that stereotype threat can suppress the performance of women taking mathematics tests due to the widely-held, inaccurate beliefs that women are not as capable as men in mathematics. In light of the far-reaching implications of stereotype threat for numerous negatively-stereotyped groups, over 300 experiments on the causes, consequences, and moderators of stereotype threat have been published in the academic literature since 1995.
    • Beauty Redefined: Girls and Body Image Survey
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      This nationwide survey, conducted in conjunction with the Dove Self-Esteem Fund, finds many girls consider the body image sold by the fashion industry unrealistic, creating an unattainable model of beauty. Nearly 90 percent of those surveyed say the fashion industry (89 percent) and/or the media (88 percent) place a lot of pressure on them to be thin.
    • Who's That Girl?: Image and Social Media Survey
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      This nationwide survey, which included more than 1,000 girls ages 14 to 17, finds the increased exposure to social media puts teenage girls in a confusing situation where a girl's image is not always what it seems. Nearly 74 percent of girls believe that most girls use social networking sites to make themselves "cooler than they really are," and the survey also finds that girls downplay positive characteristics—including intelligence and kindness.
    • Does Barbie Make Girls Want to Be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls
      Author(s): Helga Dittmar, Emma Halliwell, Suzanne Ive
      Institution: Developmental Psychology
      Year Of Study: 2006
      VIEW REPORT
      The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls’ body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported lower body esteem and greater desire for a thinner body shape than girls in the other exposure conditions. However, this immediate negative impact of Barbie doll was no longer evident in the oldest girls. These findings imply that, even if dolls cease to function as aspirational role models for older girls, early exposure to dolls epitomizing an unrealistically thin body ideal may damage girls’ body image, which would contribute to an increased risk of disordered eating and weight cycling.
    • Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I’m So Smart, Why Don’t I Know It?
      Author(s): Jennifer E. V. Lloyd, John Walsh, Manizheh Shehni Yailagh
      Institution: Canadian Journal of Education
      Year Of Study: 2005
      VIEW REPORT
      In this study, we tested the claim that sex differences in mathematics achievement are related to boys' and girls' differing achievement-related beliefs. We compared the mathematics report card grades, 2001 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Numeracy subtest scores, performance attributions, and self-efficacy of 161 British Columbian public school students' (62 fourth-graders, 99 seventh-graders). Findings indicated that girls' mathematics achievement met or exceeded that of boys and that girls' attribution patterns were more self-enhancing than those found in previous studies. However, girls were more apt to display under-confidence relative to their actual mathematics achievement and to attribute mathematics failure to a lack of teachers' help than were boys.
  • Single-Sex vs. Coed Outcomes
    • Steeped In Learning: The Student Experience at All-Girls Schools
      Author(s): Richard Holmgren
      Institution: National Coalition of Girls’ Schools, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy at Indiana University
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Administered by Indiana University's Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP), the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) explores facets of student's attitudes, behaviors, and school experiences that are known to affect learning. This report compares the experience of girls at all-girls schools with that of girls enrolled in coeducational institutions. The girls' responses provide unequivocal support for the value of an all-girls educational environment.
    • The Girl Next Door: The Effect of Opposite Gender Friends on High School Achievement
      Author(s): Andrew J. Hill
      Institution: University of South Carolina
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      This paper finds that a student's share of opposite gender school friends negatively affects high school GPA. It uses the gender composition of schoolmates in an individual's neighborhood as an instrument for the gender composition of an individual's self-reported friendship network. The effect occurs across all subjects for students older than 16, but only in mathematics and science for younger students. Additional results indicate effects may operate inside the classroom through difficulties getting along with the teacher and paying attention, and outside the classroom through romantic relationships.
    • 21st Century Girls’ Schools: For What Reasons are New Independent Girls’ Schools Opening in the United States?
      Author(s): James R. Palmieri
      Institution: Rutgers University
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      To understand better how and for what reasons new independent elementary and secondary girls' schools are opening in the United States, this study employed an exploratory qualitative analysis approach, utilizing a sample set of schools determined by their founding years (between 1995 and 2013). A thorough review and analysis of the ten youngest independent girls' schools recognized by the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) -- from coast to coast, provide a deep understanding of the similarities and differences of each school's founding, and the total sample's relevance to the current status and future of all-girls schooling. The results demonstrate, generally, school founders' desires for: a more challenging academic environment; a greater focus on socio-emotional development; the removal of the distractions of coeducation; the promotion of gender equity and women's leadership; a religious affiliation; and/or a combination of the above. Combining the latest research on how girls learn best, with both innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to pedagogy, technology, and social issues, these ten young independent girls' schools have resulted in high-achieving academic communities that are exciting to students, parents, and educators alike. Providing this current research on the heavily debated topic of single-sex education is essential to determining its present value and future within the United States educational market.
    • Questions and Answers on Title IX and Single-Sex Elementary and Secondary Classes and Extracurricular Activities
      Author(s): Catherine E. Lhamon
      Institution: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Although Title IX prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded education programs and activities, regulations issued by the Department authorize schools to offer single-sex classes or extracurricular activities under certain circumstances. In order to ensure that school subject to Title IX comply with the Department's requirements if they choose to offer single-sex classes and extracurricular activities, OCR provides the following responses to questions that schools should consider when assessing their compliance with Title IX. Although this document focuses on single-sex classes, some of the legal principles will also apply to single-sex schools. In order to gain a complete understanding of these legal requirements and recommendations, this document should be read in full.
    • The Effects of Single-Sex Compared with Coeducational Schooling on Students’ Performance and Attitudes
      Author(s): Erin Pahlke, Janet Shibley Hyde, Carlie M. Allison
      Institution: American Psychological Association
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Proponents of single-sex (SS) education believe that separating boys and girls, by classrooms or schools, increases students' achievement and academic interest. In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze studies that have tested the effects on students of SS compared with coeducational (CE) schooling. We meta-analyzed data from 184 studies, representing the testing of 1.6 million students in Grades K-12 from 21 nations, for multiple outcomes (e.g., mathematics performance, mathematics attitudes, science performance, educational aspirations, self-concept, gender stereotyping). To address concerns about the quality of research designs, we categorized studies as uncontrolled (no controls for selection effects, no random assignment) or controlled (random assignment or controls for selection effects). Based on mixed-effects analyses, uncontrolled studies showed some modest advantages for single-sex schooling, for both girls and boys, for outcomes such as mathematics performance but not for science performance. Controlled studies, however, showed only trivial differences between students in SS versus CE, for mathematics performance (g=0.10 for girls, 0.06 for boys) and science performance (g= 0.06 for girls, 0.04 for boys), and in some cases showed small differences favoring CE schooling (e.g., for girls' educational aspirations, g= -0.26). Separate analyses of U.S. studies yielded similar findings (e.g., for mathematics performance=0.14 for girls and 0.1 for boys). Results from the highest quality studies, then, do not support the view that SS schooling provides benefits compared with CE schooling. Claims that SS schooling is particularly effective for U.S. ethnic minority boys could not be tested due to the lack of controlled studies on this question.
    • The Role of Single-Sex Education in the Academic Engagement of College-Bound Women: A Multilevel Analysis
      Author(s): Linda J. Sax, Tiffani A. Riggers, M. Kevin Eagan
      Institution: UCLA
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      The study addresses whether levels of academic engagement differ between single-sex and coeducational settings. The study uses self-reported survey data and multilevel modeling to address secondary school-level effects in a national sample of women entering college. The analyses suggest that attendance at a single-sex high school remains a significant predictor of academic engagement even after controlling for the confounding role of student background characteristics, school-level features, and peer contexts within each school. Specifically, women attending all-girls high schools report high levels of academic engagement across numerous fronts: studying individually or in groups, interacting with teachers, tutoring other students, and getting involved in student organizations. However, these results may also be attributed to other features that differentiate single-sex from coeducational schools, such as smaller enrollments and racial/ethnic diversity of the schools in this study.
    • Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago
      Author(s): C. Kirabo Jackson
      Institution: Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, NBER
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      The results suggest that previous studies may have suffered from student-selection bias. The finding of heterogeneous treatment effects highlight that local treatment effects of schools for the typical applicant can be very misleading about effects for the average student. The results suggest that making single-sex school available to those few students with strong preferences for single-sex schools may improve academic outcomes for these few students, but that expanding single-sex secondary schools to all students may have little effect on overall achievement, and may not be an effective tool for increasing female representation in math, science, and engineering fields.
    • The Truth About Gender Differences
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Gender differences and their implications for the care and education of children have been the topic of much controversy. Differences between the genders are often represented as innate and immutable despite the absence of robust scientific evidence in support of this view. Indeed, most research evidence indicates that psychological differences between girls and boys are overwhelmingly the result of gender socialization. A balanced, evidence-based view of the magnitude and origins of gender gaps advances goals shared by parents and educators: that no child should be constrained by her or his gender and that all girls should enjoy the opportunities available to boys, and vice versa.
    • Choosing to Compete: How Different Are Girls and Boys?
      Author(s): Alison Booth and Patrick Nolen
      Institution: IZA, Institute for the Study of Labor
      Year Of Study: 2009
      VIEW REPORT
      Using a controlled experiment, we examined the role of nurture in explaining the stylized fact that women shy away from competition. Our subjects (students just under 15 years of age) attend publicly-funded single-sex and coeducational schools. We find robust differences between the competitive choices of girls from single-sex and coed schools. Moreover, girls from single-sex schools behave more like boys even when randomly assigned to mixed-sex experimental groups. Thus it is untrue that the average female avoids competitive behavior more than the average male. This suggests that observed gender differences might reflect social learning rather than inherent gender traits.
    • Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition
      Author(s): Jing Feng, Ian Spence, Jay Pratt
      Institution: Association for Psychological Science
      Year Of Study: 2007
      VIEW REPORT
      We demonstrate a previously unknown gender difference in the distribution of spatial attention, a basic capacity that supports higher-level spatial cognition. More remarkably, we found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender disparity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition. After only 1- hr of training with an action video game, subjects realized substantial gains in both spatial attention and mental rotation, with women benefiting more than men. Control subjects who played a non-action game showed no improvement. Given that superior spatial skills are important in the mathematical and engineering sciences, these findings have practical implications for attracting men and women to these fields.
    • Research Versus the Media: Mixed or Single-Gender Settings?
      Author(s): Helen J. Forgasz, Gilah C. Leder, Calvin Taylor
      Institution: Australian Association for Research in Education
      Year Of Study: 2007
      VIEW REPORT
      This paper compares scholarly research and media coverage of the benefits and disadvantages for students of learning in mixed or single sex settings. The debate on the relative advantages of single-sex and co-educational learning settings continues to attract the attention of researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and the community at large. The more measured tones of scholarly work can be contrasted with the often heated and emotive voices of the popular media – print, radio, and television. Our examination of relevant articles and reports over the last decade confirms that the focus, however, has changed from concerns about girls’ educational needs to those of boys, particularly in the popular media. Even when educational researchers have devised studies incorporating many interrelated factors that can influence educational outcomes, media commentators, with few exceptions, have tended to simplify the issues or ignore completely the complexity of the issues involved. A consistent finding in the research literature of the crucial role played by teachers was frequently overlooked in media reports, thus fueling the impression that gendered settings of schools or classrooms per se can “fix” perceived inadequacies in the educational system.
    • Single-Sex Schools for Girls and Gender Equality in Education
      Author(s): Tamo Chattopadhay
      Institution: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education
      Year Of Study: 2007
      VIEW REPORT
      Every girl and every boy has the right to a free, quality education. Research clearly shows that the relevance of education for girls largely depends on teaching-learning processes and content that are appropriate, engage girls and meet their needs. Co-education, single-sex and mixed schools all have the potential to provide safe, empowering learning to girls. A priority for policy makers is to ensure teacher training and curriculum development respond to girls' as well as boys' learning needs in all schools.
    • Students’ Perceptions of Their Classroom Participation and Instructor as a Function of Gender and Context
      Author(s): Gail Crombie, Sandra W. Pyke, Naida Silverthorn, Alison Jones, Sergio Piccinin
      Year Of Study: 2003
      VIEW REPORT
      In summary, the goal of the present study was to determine the impact of a number of contextual features of the university classroom on the perceived participation of students and on students' perceptions of their instructor. More specifically, student gender, the form of their interactions, and their general level of activity in the classroom were all examined in light of these contextual factors. Based on the findings in the literature and the chilly climate construct, it was predicted that female students as compared with male students would perceive themselves as participating less overall, using less assertive modes of participation, participating more in classes taught by female faculty, and having more positive perceptions of female professors. Furthermore, we hypothesized that active students would hold more positive perceptions of their classroom experience than would less active students, as would students in smaller classes and students in arts/social science classes as compared to natural science classes. Finally, because some recent research has indicated that older students participate in class more than younger students (Howard & Henney 1998; Howard et al., 1996), additional analyses were conducted to explore the effects of student age on self perceptions of participation.
    • The Impact of School Size and Single-Sex Education on Performance
      Author(s): Thomas Spielhofer, Lisa O'Donnell, Tom Benton, Sandie Schagen, Ian Schagen
      Institution: National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER)
      Year Of Study: 2002
      VIEW REPORT
      This report explores two issues of enduring interest: the impact on performance of school size and single-sex education. There are arguments in favour of small schools and large schools. And although most comprehensive schools are coeducational, it is sometimes claimed that single-sex education is beneficial, particularly for girls. In order to explore these issues, it was felt necessary to undertake a value-added analysis which took prior attainment and other key factors into account. The research presented here thus comprises two strands: a review of published literature and some primary analysis.
    • Why Girls’ Schools? The Difference In Girl-Centered Education
      Author(s): Whitney Ransome and Meg Milne Moulton
      Institution: Fordham Urban Law Journal
      Year Of Study: 2001
      VIEW REPORT
      The past decade has witnessed a remarkable resurgence of interest in all-girls' education. Following the enactment of Title IX in 1972, the number of single-sex schools declined. By the mid 1990s, only two public girls' schools remained. What, then, explains the remarkable renaissance that has occurred in just over a decade's time? What has led to the renewal of interest in girls' schools? How does an all-girls education differ from a co-educational education? The answers to these questions can be found in a series of interrelated developments in educational theory, gender research, and the link between brain function and the learning process.
    • Separated By Sex: A Critical Look at Single-Sex Education for Girls
      Institution: American Association of University Women Educational Foundation
      Year Of Study: 1998
      VIEW REPORT
      To summarize, interest in single-sex classes seems to be increasing in K-12 education. However, at this point few definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall impact of current efforts to implement single-sex classes, especially with respect to their impact on girls. It is difficult to make a general assessment of single-sex classes because of three issues inherent in much of the research and practice in this area. These are (1) the disparity in the goals of single-sex classes, (2) the varieties of ways these classes have been implemented, and (3) a need for more systematic, long-term research in this area.
  • STEM/STEAM
    • Gendered Pathways: How Mathematics Ability Beliefs Shape Secondary and Postsecondary Course and Degree Field Choices
      Author(s): Lara Perez-Felkner, Samantha Nix, Kirby Thomas
      Institution: Frontiers in Psychology
      Year Of Study: 2017
      VIEW REPORT
      Do mathematics ability beliefs explain gender gaps in the physical science, engineering, mathematics, and computer science fields (PEMC) and other science fields? This report leverages U.S. nationally representative longitudinal data to estimate gendered differences in girls’ and boys’ perceptions of mathematics ability with the most difficult or challenging material. Findings indicate even at the same levels of observed ability, girls’ mathematics ability beliefs under challenge are markedly lower than those of boys. These beliefs matter over time, potentially tripling girls’ chances of majoring in PEMC sciences, over and above biological science fields, all else being equal. Implications and potential interventions are discussed.
    • The Math Anxiety-Performance Link: A Global Phenomenon
      Author(s): Alana E. Foley, Julianne B. Herts, Francesca Borgonovi, Sonia Guerriero, Susan C. Levine, Sian L. Beilock
      Institution: Association for Psychological Science
      Year Of Study: 2017
      VIEW REPORT
      This article reviews findings that shed light on antecedents of math anxiety, the bidirectional math anxiety-performance relation, underlying mechanisms, and promising routes to mitigating the negative relation between math anxiety and math performance.
    • Changing the Game for Girls in STEM
      Author(s): Kara Sammet, Linda Kekelis
      Institution: Techbridge
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      The emerging movement to engage girls and minorities in STEM is slow going. This paper offers effective and promising strategies for promoting diverse girls’opportunities in STEM, leveling the playing field for girls and addressing workforce shortages. These strategies were identified by a research team led by Techbridge who reviewed a wide array of published materials, interviewed leaders of nationally recognized STEM initiatives, and drew upon lessons learned from Techbridge's 16 year history supporting girls in STEM.
    • Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls
      Author(s): Gijsbert Stoet, Drew H. Bailey, Alex M. Moore, David C. Geary
      Institution: PLoS ONE
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between sociocultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation.

    • Sharing Solutions 2016: Building a Better Pipeline
      Author(s): Mariandl M.C. Hufford, Wendy L. Hill, Sarah Anne Eckert, Frederic Bertley
      Institution: The Agnes Irwin School's Center for the Advancement of Girls, The Franklin Institute
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      This paper focuses explicitly on changing the institutional school culture surrounding the participation of girls in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). At a conference in March of 2015, The Agnes Irwin School brought together a diverse audience to share best-practices for increasing the participation and persistence of girls and women in STEM fields. Evaluations after the conference revealed that participants were most interested in learning more about how to change the culture of institutions in such a way that girls are more likely to participate and persist in STEM fields long-term. In this report, as a focus of discussion for the 2016 conference, the culture of schools is given special attention due to the crucial space it occupies at the beginning of the pipeline.
    • Stereotypes About Gender and Science: Women ≠ Scientists
      Author(s): Linda L. Carli, Laila Alawa, YoonAh Lee, Bei Zhao, Elaine Kim
      Institution: Psychology of Women Quarterly
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      We conducted two studies whose primary goal was to assess the similarity between stereotypes about women and men and stereotypes about successful scientists. In addition, we examined the degree to which scientists, men, and women are seen as agentic or communal. The results are consistent with role-congruity and lack-of-fit theories that report incompatibility of female gender stereotypes with stereotypes about high-status occupational roles. The results demonstrate that women are perceived to lack the qualities needed to be successful scientists, which may contribute to discrimination and prejudice against female scientists.
    • The Role of Mothers’ Communication in Promoting Motivation for Math and Science Course-Taking in High School
      Author(s): Janet S. Hyde, Elizabeth A. Canning, Christopher S. Rozek, Emily Clarke, Chris S. Hulleman, Judith M. Harackiewicz
      Institution: Journal of Research on Adolescence
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      In the context of concerns about American youths’ failure to take advanced math and science (MS) courses in high school, the researchers of this study examined mothers’ communication with their adolescent about taking MS courses. At ninth grade, U.S. mothers (n = 130) were interviewed about their responses to hypothetical questions from their adolescent about the usefulness of algebra, geometry, calculus, biology, chemistry, and physics. Responses were coded for elaboration and making personal connections to the adolescent. The number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses taken in 12th grade was obtained from school records. Mothers’ use of personal connections predicted adolescents’ MS interest and utility value, as well as actual MS course-taking. Parents can play an important role in motivating their adolescent to take MS courses
    • Computing Whether She Belongs: Stereotypes Undermine Girls’ Interest and Sense of Belonging in Computer Science
      Author(s): Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Andrew N. Meltzoff
      Institution: The American Psychological Association
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      In the present work, we investigate a social factor that may affect high school students’ interest in computer science: current stereotypes of the field of computer science. We begin by describing adolescents’ stereotypes about computer science, and why adolescence is a key time to examine effects of these stereotypes on girls’ interest in computer science. We then discuss how a lack of belonging, and other factors such as concerns about negative stereotypes and lower expectations of success, might affect girls’ interest in computer science. Finally, we discuss how individual differences in conjunction with stereotypes can explain which girls are particularly susceptible to the negative effects of these stereotypes.
    • Female Peers in Small Work Groups Enhance Women’s Motivation, Verbal Participation, and Career Aspirations in Engineering
      Author(s): Nilanjana Dasgupta, Melissa McManus Scircle, Matthew Hunsinger
      Institution: University of Massachusetts, Amherst
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.
    • Finnish Students' Engagement in Science Lessons
      Author(s): Janna Linnansaari
      Institution: University of Helsinki
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The decreasing number of students who are engaged in science learning has been recognized as a problem. The pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement were examined using a novel research method to obtain detailed information on Finnish students' engagement in different situations and to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon. The study's participants consisted of 68 students (31 girls, 37 boys) from 9th grade and 67 students (46 girls, 21 boys) from 1st grade in upper secondary school. The research aimed to answer the following question: How does Finnish students' engagement occur in exact and life science lessons? Participants received smartphones equipped with a smartphone application that included an experience sampling method questionnaire. The smartphones were programmed to emit a signal during every science lesson and otherwise randomly during the day (from 8 am to 8 pm). The results reveal that situation and grade had significant effects on students' pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement. Our results also show that girls had the highest interest in life science lessons and boys in exact science lessons.
    • Gender Differences in Mathematics Attitudes in Coeducational and Single Sex Secondary Education
      Author(s): Kester Lee, Judy Anderson
      Institution: Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Exploring why more boys than girls continue to study higher levels of mathematics in senior school when there appear to be no gender differences in achievement in earlier years is worthy of investigation. There are potentially many reasons why this occurs including career aspirations, interest, and attitudes. One factor explored in this study was the gender composition of classes in Years 7 to 9. Data was collected from students in a single-sex boy’s school, a single-sex girl’s school and a coeducational school. Data revealed differences in attitude to mathematics with girls in the single-sex school having the most positive attitudes and girls in the coeducation setting having the least positive attitudes.
    • GoldieBlox in the 2nd and 3rd Grade: Final Report
      Author(s): Sarah Anne Eckert and Mariandl M.C. Hufford
      Institution: Center for the Advancement of Girls, The Agnes Irwin School
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      One proposed method of combating the gender gap in STEM fields is to expose girls to the kinds of toys that develop an interest in building, which are typically marketed towards boys. One such toy, GoldieBloxTM, was created by a female engineer who was keenly aware of the dearth of females in engineering. The GoldieBloxTM website claims, “By tapping into girls' strong verbal skills, our story and construction set bolsters confidence in spatial skills while giving young inventors the tools they need to build and create amazing things”. In other words, GoldieBloxTM is not just a pink set of construction tools, it is a toy designed based on research that states girls are more engaged when their verbal skills are employed. This paper outlines the procedures and results of a one year evaluation of the efficacy of GoldieBloxTM to achieve those stated goals within 2nd and 3rd grade classrooms at one girls’ school.
    • Math at Home Adds Up to Achievement in School
      Author(s): Talia Berkowitz, Marjorie W. Schaeffer, Erin A. Maloney, Lori Peterson, Courtney Gregor, Susan C. Levine, Sian L. Beilock
      Institution: American Association for the Advancement of Science
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, the researchers of this report tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. They predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children’s math achievement at school. The researchers tested this prediction by having children engage in math storytime with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children’s math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. This report shows how brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement.
    • Misperception Discourages Girls from Studying Some STEM Fields
      Author(s): Samantha Nix, Lara Perez-Felkner, Kirby Thomas
      Institution: Florida State University
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      The belief that the ability to do difficult mathematics is something that you either have or you don't prevents many American girls from pursuing a college degree in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, or computer science (PMEC) suggests a new study.
    • Raising Girls' Participation in A-level Mathematics: Initial Findings from 'Good Practice' Case Studies
      Author(s): Cathy Smith, Jennie Golding
      Institution: UCL Institute of Education
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Fewer girls than boys in England participate in post-compulsory mathematics and the recent increase in popularity of Mathematics and Further Mathematics (FM) at age 16 has not changed the gender balance. Previous studies have shown the significance to girls of their mathematics lessons and teachers, of discursive co-constructions of masculinity and mathematics, of the range of careers associated with mathematics and science, and family 'science capital.' This study identified four case-study schools and one Further Education (FE) college with unusually high participation by girls in mathematics A-level. Focus groups and lesson observations were used to explore factors relevant to girls' participation. Common factors were: preparation for demanding mathematics during key stage 4, a departmental ethos which encouraged student-teacher interactions in and out of lessons, teachers who explicitly and repeatedly confirmed that girls would succeed at mathematics A-level, appreciation of mathematics as opening doors to many careers. Messages about FM were more restrictive but emphasized interest over unusual ability.
    • Sharing Solutions 2015: Advancing Girls in STEM
      Author(s): Sarah Anne Eckert, Mariandl M.C. Hufford, Wendy L. Hill
      Institution: The Agnes Irwin School & the Center for the Advancement of Girls
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      At various places along the educational pipeline, girls are missing out on opportunities that would lead them to embark on careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). To further understand both the problems leading to and the solutions for the “leaky” STEM pipeline, The Agnes Irwin School, through its Center for the Advancement of Girls, held a two-day conference, Sharing Solutions 2015. The overarching goal for Sharing Solutions 2015 was to understand why so few girls and women enter STEM fields as well as why so many girls and women leave stem fields and to share best practices for increasing the participation and persistence of these populations in STEM fields.
    • Solving the Equation: The Variables for Women’s Success in Engineering and Computing
      Institution: AAUW
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Solving the Equation: The Variables for Women's Success in Engineering and Computing asks why there are still so few women in the critical fields of engineering and computing--and explains what we can do to make these fields open to and desirable for all employees.
    • Study Shows How Students Understand Mathematics
      Author(s): Emily R. Fyfe, Nicole M. McNeil, Bethany Rittle-Johnson
      Institution: University of Notre Dame
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      A new paper examines if the labels educators use to identify patterns affects preschoolers' understanding of patterns. Understanding that problem and developing strategies to overcome it is the research focus the study.
    • Career Choices and Influencers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: An Analysis of the Maritime Provinces
      Author(s): Tamara Franz-Odendaal, Karen Blotnicky, Fred French, Phillip Joy
      Institution: WISEatlantic survey
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      The WISEatlantic Research Group has completed the first year of a five year study focusing on the engagement of junior high school students in science and math subjects, their competency in such subjects, and influencers of their future career decisions, particularly those focused on careers in science, technology, engineering and math.
    • Girls and Digital Technology
      Institution: Laurel School's Center for Research on Girls
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      Research finds that, on average, children engage heavily with technology by age eleven and that adolescents use technology for non-academic purposes for nearly three and a half hours each day. Girls are more likely to use technology for social networking and communication, while boys are more likely to use technology for gaming or entertainment. Interestingly, young men are more likely than young women to become problematic Internet users and young women are more likely than young men to recognize and control their problematic use. Overall, research does not support "generalized 'bad versus good' effects of Internet use on youth" but suggests that "the context in which Internet use occurs needs to be taken into account."
    • MakeHers: Engaging Girls and Women in Technology through Making, Creating, and Inventing
      Author(s): Renee Wittemyer, Barbara McAllister, Susan Faulkner, Anne McClard and Kirrin Gill
      Institution: Intel
      Year Of Study: 2014
      VIEW REPORT
      The Maker Movement refers to the recent wave of tech-inspired, do-it-yourself (DIY) innovation sweeping the globe. Participants in this movement, known as makers, take advantage of cheap, powerful, easy-to-use tools, as well as easier access to knowledge, capital, and markets to create new physical objects. This revolutionary change in how hardware is innovated and manufactured has great potential to change the future of computing, particularly for girls and women, a group traditionally underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields.
    • Accelerating Change for Women Faculty of Color in STEM: Policy, Action, and Collaboration
      Author(s): Cynthia Hess, Barbara Gault, Youngmin Yi
      Institution: The Institute for Women’s Policy Research
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      This report is part of a project to address the underrepresentation of women faculty of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) led by the Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR). It summarizes highlights from a convening held in May 2013 that brought together nearly 50 experts, including professors, academic administrators, and representatives of government, professional societies, the corporate sector, and women's organizations. It addresses the barriers that make it difficult for women faculty of color to advance in STEM fields, key programmatic and policy shifts that would promote their success, and strategies for implementing promising changes and taking them to scale. The convening and report are part of IWPR's research on education and training, which includes early care and education, girls' experiences in the K-12 system, postsecondary attainment, and high-quality workforce development opportunities for STEM and other careers. IWPR's recent research in this area includes a profile of programs at community colleges designed to engage women in STEM fields, as well as reports exploring pedagogical methods to increase women's participation in engineering.
    • Cascading Influences: Long-Term Impacts of Informal STEM Experiences for Girls
      Author(s): Dale McCreedy, Lynn D. Dierking
      Institution: The Franklin Institute Science Museum
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      This publication aims at better understanding the long-term significance of informal STEM programs for girls. Focused specifically on young women who participated in girls-only STEM programs at least 5-25+ years ago, the study documents young women's perceptions of their experiences in these programs and the ways in which this participation influenced their future choices in education, careers, leisure pursuits, and ways of thinking about what science is and who does it. Additionally, it explores potential long-term influences on young women's lives more generally, beyond STEM.
    • Doubling Digital Opportunities: Enhancing the Inclusion of Women & Girls in the Information Society
      Author(s): Phillippa Biggs and Raul Zambrano
      Institution: The Broadband Commission
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      This Report studies the role that ICTs and the Internet can play in advancing gender equality agendas, including equal access to new technologies by women and girls. It examines the central question of how access to the Internet and ICTs can help redress some of the inequalities women and girls face in their everyday lives, and whether inequalities in access to the Internet, and the types of content available online, are in fact reinforcing social attitudes towards women. Issues in fact extend far beyond basic access, including the availability of relevant content and the participation of women in public policy-making processes. The Report explores measures of inequality in access to ICTs, the importance of ICTs in educating and shaping the aspirations and hopes of the next generation of women and girls, and the implications of lack of access to ICTs by girls and women.
    • The Hidden STEM Economy: Key Findings
      Author(s): Jonathan Rothwell
      Institution: Brookings Institute
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. A new report from the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program presents a new and more rigorous way to define STEM occupations, and in doing so presents a new portrait of the STEM economy.
    • Why Are There Still So Few Women in Science?
      Author(s): Eileen Pollack
      Institution: The New York Times
      Year Of Study: 2013
      VIEW REPORT
      Researchers at Yale recently published a study proving that physicists, chemists and biologists are likely to view a young male scientist more favorably than a woman with the same qualifications. The new study goes a long way toward providing hard evidence of a continuing bias against women in the sciences. Only one-fifth of physics Ph.D.’s in this country are awarded to women, and only about half of those women are American; of all the physics professors in the United States, only 14 percent are women. What could still be keeping women out of the STEM fields (“STEM” being the current shorthand for “science, technology, engineering and mathematics”), which offer so much in the way of job prospects, prestige, intellectual stimulation and income?
    • Generation STEM: What Girls Say about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math
      Institution: Girl Scout Research Institute
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      This research project intends to add to the body of knowledge on girls and young women and STEM as well as provide results that can be used to recommend new innovative solutions. This project consists of a literature review, as well as original qualitative and quantitative research. The literature review summarizes the current state of girls in STEM fields, while the qualitative and quantitative portions of the study examine the barriers and potential 'bright spots' from the voices of girls themselves. The qualitative portion was conducted with 140 girls across several regions of the U.S., and the quantitative portion consists of a nationwide survey of 852 teen girls.
    • Girls in IT: The Facts
      Author(s): Catherine Ashcraft, Elizabeth Eger, and Michelle Friend
      Institution: National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT)
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      In the last decade, considerable research into increasing girls' participation in computing has emerged, but an up-to-date, coherent synthesis of the existing literature is lacking. This report, sponsored by NCWIT's K-12 Alliance, aims to bring together this latest research so that readers can gain a clearer and more coherent picture of 1) the current state of affairs for girls in computing, 2) the key barriers to increasing girls' participation in these fields, and 3) promising practices for addressing these barriers. It is our hope that this report also will inspire and enable readers to act locally and nationally, advocating for more inclusive computing curriculum, practices, and environments.
    • It’s Different for Girls: The Influence of Schools
      Institution: Institute of Physics
      Year Of Study: 2012
      VIEW REPORT
      In 2011, physics was the fourth most popular subject for A-level among boys in English schools but for girls the subject languished in 19th place. This new report from the Institute of Physics shows that many girls across the country are not receiving what they’re entitled to – an inspiring education in physics. In turn, this has led to the poor representation of girls in physics, denying them individual opportunities and contributing to the UK’s shortage in STEM skills. This report takes a snapshot of the situation, using A-level data from 2011 to assess the choices that girls in English schools are making, and shows startling differences between different kinds of schools, suggesting that many girls in the state sector are being deprived of significant opportunities.
    • Engaging Girls in STEM: Collaboration
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      The research literature on engaging girls in STEM fields shows that girls prefer STEM work when they are able to work in collaboration with each other. Female students report having a better experience when working with other students and are more likely to finish an assignment as well as persist in a STEM course when working collaboratively. Both male and female students who worked in pairs were more confident in their solutions to course work; the confidence boost from working in pairs was greater for women than men. Of particular importance, the same researchers found that working in pairs effectively combats the negative stereotype that technical work is solitary and competitive. Studies have identified several additional benefits of collaboration for women in STEM fields: higher quality work produced in less time than working alone, improved understanding of course material, improved course completion rates and performance on exams, and increased enjoyment of activities such as computer programming.
    • Engaging Girls in STEM: Meaningful Objectives
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Research indicates that one of the main barriers to women entering STEM majors and careers is the perception among girls that STEM work lacks clear and purposeful ties to everyday life. Focus groups run by the American Association of University Women, found that “girls discuss information technology-related careers not as too difficult, but as a ‘waste of intelligence’ and, in some cases, materialistic and shortsighted.” In a survey of high school students, female students reported a desire to use computing in non-computing fields as the main reason to consider pursuing a computer science degree. College students follow suit: female students are more likely than men to value the ability to use their technical skills for helping others and are attracted to a computer science major when they recognize computing as a component of a career aimed at helping others.
    • Engaging Girls in STEM: Role Models
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Research on the gap between men and women in STEM fields points to the paucity of readily available role models for girls as they consider STEM careers. This dearth of STEM role models harms girls in two related ways. First, as girls begin to consider college majors and career trajectories, the choice of STEM fields is not reinforced by respected role models; second, the lack of female role models reinforces some negative stereotypes held by girls and young women about STEM fields. Specifically, researchers note that the “male geek” stereotype about computer scientists actively dissuades women from considering the field. Research from several disciplines suggests that the presence of female peers, teaching assistants, and faculty members increases female retention in STEM majors. On the other hand, the absence of female role models and mentors has a clear negative impact. Women cited a lack of role models as a significant reason for leaving the fields.
    • Engaging Girls in STEM: Tinkering
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      When girls tinker, they develop skills that promote success in STEM fields: spatial awareness, mechanical reasoning, invention, exploration, and experimentation. They also cultivate intellectual habits that are useful in a variety of academic and creative domains, including critical thinking, risk-taking, systematic questioning, self-monitoring and self-correction, creativity, and courage. When teachers incorporate tinkering into their curricula, they provide opportunities for girls to explore new ideas freely; in other words, teachers can use tinkering to help students appreciate the pleasures of inventive intellectual pursuits.
    • Girls and the Internet
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      Though men receive nearly 85% of the bachelor's degrees in computer science, computers are no longer "just for boys," especially when it comes to the world of social networks. Compared to boys, girls are more likely to participate in social networks, create blogs, use instant messaging, use e-mail, and post pictures; in contrast boys are more likely than girls to post online video content. Interestingly, boys and girls tend to disclose similar amounts of personal information online. This stands in contrast to traditional social interactions where girls are more likely than boys to share personal information. In terms of texting, research demonstrates that girls are more likely than boys to send text messages and to carry their phones at all times.
    • Effects of Single-Gender Mathematics Classrooms on Self-Perception of Mathematical Ability and Post-Secondary Engineering Paths: An Australian Case Study
      Author(s): Deborah Tully, Betty Jacobs
      Institution: European Journal of Engineering Education
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS’ female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post-secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practicing engineers. In measures of self-perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualization, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.
    • Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
      Author(s): Catherine Hill, Cristianne Corbett, Andresse St. Rose
      Institution: AAUW
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      Drawing on a large and diverse body of research, this report presents eight recent research findings that provide evidence that social and environmental factors contribute to the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering. The rapid increase in the number of girls achieving very high scores on mathematics tests once thought to measure innate ability suggests that cultural factors are at work. Thirty years ago there were 13 boys for every girl who scored above 700 on the SAT math exam at age 13; today that ratio has shrunk to about 3:1. This increase in the number of girls identified as "mathematically gifted" suggests that education can and does make a difference at the highest levels of mathematical achievement. While biological gender differences, yet to be well understood, may play a role, they clearly are not the whole story.
    • Female Teachers’ Math Anxiety Impacts Girls’ Math Achievement
      Author(s): Sian L. Beilock, Elizabeth A. Gunderson, Gerardo Ramirez, and Susan C. Levine
      Institution: The University of Chicago
      Year Of Study: 2009
      VIEW REPORT
      People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students.
    • Attracting Women to the C. S. Major
      Author(s): Heather K. Tillberg, J. McGrath Cohoon
      Institution: Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies
      Year Of Study: 2005
      VIEW REPORT
      The growing gender divide in computer science is one of the more perplexing phenomena on college campuses today, especially considering the rising number of high school girls taking advanced science and math courses. The focus of this paper is on what attracts students to the computer science (CS) major. This study found that the most consistent themes in student reports were early experiences with computers, the match between a student's self-assessed abilities and the abilities required by computer science, and the features of computing careers. Male and female students who chose a computing major were largely attracted by the same factors, but with some differences. Knowledge of the similarities and differences in what attracts students will allow colleges and universities to develop new, proactive approaches for addressing the gender disparity in their CS programs.
    • Tech-Savvy: Educating Girls in the New Computer Age
      Author(s): AAUW Educational Foundation Commission on Technology, Gender, and Teacher Education
      Institution: AAUW Educational Foundation
      Year Of Study: 2000
      VIEW REPORT
      How do we educate girls to become tech-savvy women? What changes are needed in the computer culture to improve its image, repair its deficits, and make it more appealing to girls and women? For women and girls, making the computer culture more reflective of their interests and values depends on their ability to influence the popular discourse about cyber-culture and education. This report examines how technology may be incorporated into school curricula in a way that makes computer culture more appealing and accessible to young girls.
    • Gender Differences in First-Grade Mathematics Strategy Use: Parent and Teacher Contributions
      Author(s): Martha Carr, Donna L. Jessup, Diana Fuller
      Institution: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
      Year Of Study: 1999
      VIEW REPORT
      In this study we examined how parents and teachers influence the development of gender differences in mathematics strategy use in the 1st grade. Children were interviewed about their strategy use, their metacognitive knowledge about specific strategies and their perceptions of parents' and teachers' attitudes toward various strategies. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires about the types of strategy and metacognitive instruction they provided. Previous results (Carr & Jessup, 1997) were replicated with boys correctly using retrieval during the 1st grade more than girls and girls correctly using overt strategies more than boys. Boys were influenced by the belief that adults like strategies indicating ability and by teacher instruction on retrieval strategies. Girls' strategy use was not related to perceived adult beliefs or actions.
    • Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance
      Author(s): Steven J. Spencer, Claude M. Steele, Diane M. Quinn
      Institution: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
      Year Of Study: 1999
      VIEW REPORT
      When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicament stereotype threat and hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women’s math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
  • Teaching Best Practices
    • Effective Pedagogies for Girls' Learning
      Author(s): Mike Younger
      Institution: Girls' Day School Trust
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      Gender issues have been a focus for many educational research studies in recent decades, sparked by the differential responses of girls and boys to schooling. This research review focuses on one aspect of this gender debate: effective pedagogies for girls’ learning. In so doing, an attempt is made to consider whether girls and boys are best taught in single-sex classrooms, whether learning is better facilitated in such classrooms, whether girls and boys have different learning styles, and whether there are girl-friendly pedagogies which are distinct from pedagogies which support boys’ learning.
    • Teaching in the Machine Age: How Innovation Can Make Bad Teachers Good and Good Teachers Better
      Author(s): Thomas Arnett
      Institution: Christensen Institute
      Year Of Study: 2016
      VIEW REPORT
      As scientific understanding and artificial intelligence leap forward, many professions—such as law, accounting, animation, and medicine—are changing in dramatic ways. Increasingly, these advances allow non-experts and machines to perform tasks that were previously in the sole domain of experts, thus turning expert-quality work into a commodity. With new technologies displacing workers across many fields, what will be the likely impact on the teaching profession? Will machines replace teachers? Rather, this report shows that as innovations continue to simplify and automate distinct aspects of teaching, effective and less-effective teachers will see their capabilities enhanced by computers. This pattern provides a key insight for practitioners and policymakers who are working to guarantee that all students have access to high-quality teaching.
    • Texting and Tweeting in the Classroom: How Do They Impact Student Learning?
      Author(s): Jeffrey H. Kuznekoff, Stevie Munz, Scott Titsworth
      Institution: National Communication Association
      Year Of Study: 2015
      VIEW REPORT
      Mobile devices are ubiquitous- including in the college classroom. Instructors across disciplines now compete with a host of electronic stimuli for students' attention. But to what extent is messaging interfering with student learning? Can students concentrate with the same intensity while exchanging texts with their friends and family? A new study evaluates how different types of messaging impact student retention of classroom material.
    • Girls and Blended Learning
      Institution: Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School
      Year Of Study: 2011
      VIEW REPORT
      So far there have been no research findings derived from studies focusing on girls within the blended classroom. We know simply that students taught in a blended classroom learn better than students who learn in a purely online environment or a purely face-to-face environment. However, there are salient research findings about the way girls interact with technology that can direct teachers of girls to the most effective ways to teach girls in the blended classroom.
    • The Myth of Learning Styles
      Author(s): Cedar Riener, Daniel Willingham
      Institution: Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning
      Year Of Study: 2010
      VIEW REPORT
      There is no credible evidence that learning styles exist. In what follows, we will begin by defining “learning styles”; then we will address the claims made by those who believe that they exist, in the process acknowledging what we consider the valid claims of learning-styles theorists. We will then discuss the reasons why learning styles beliefs are so prevalent. Finally, we will offer suggestions about collegiate pedagogy, given that we have no evidence learning styles do not exist.
    • Group Work and Whole-Class Teaching with 11- to 14-Year-Olds Compared
      Author(s): Maurice Galton, Linda Hargreaves, Tony Pell
      Institution: Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge
      Year Of Study: 2009
      VIEW REPORT
      This article compares the academic performance and classroom behavior of pupils when taught new concepts or engaged in problem-solving in sessions organized either as cooperative group work or whole class, teacher directed instruction. Comparisons of attainment were made in classes of pupils aged 11 to 14 years (Key Stage 3) in English, mathematics, and science. Pupils were also observed, mainly during the introductory phase of the topic under investigation, using a specially designed structured observation schedule. The attainment results suggest that a grouping approach is as effective, and in some cases more effective, than when whole-class teaching is used. Classroom observation indicated that there were more sustained, higher cognitive level interactions when pupils worked in groups than during whole-class discussions. It is argued in conclusion that the group work results could be improved still further if teachers gave more attention to training pupils to work in groups and if more time was given to debriefing after group work.
    • Should We Be Using Learning Styles? What Research Has to Say to Practice
      Author(s): Frank Coffield, David Moseley, Elaine Hall, Kathryn Ecclestone
      Institution: Learning & Skills Research Centre
      Year Of Study: 2004
      VIEW REPORT
      Learning style instruments are widely used. But are they reliable and valid? Do they have an impact on pedagogy? This report examines 13 models of learning style and concludes that it matters fundamentally which model is chosen. Positive recommendations are made for students, teachers and trainers, managers, researchers, and inspectors.
Girl in Science class